AWS Solutions Architect Professional Practice Questions Part 8iam.awslagi
Notes: Hi all, We’re sharing AWS Solutions Architect Professional Practice Exam Part 8 will familiarize you with types of questions you may encounter on the certification exam and help you determine your readiness or if you need more preparation and/or experience. Successful completion of the practice exam does not guarantee you will pass the certification exam as the actual exam is longer and covers a wider range of topics. We highly recommend you should take AWS Solutions Architect Professional Guarantee Part because it include actual exam questions and highlighted answers are collected in our exam. It will help you pass exam in easier way.
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Part 4: https://www.awslagi.com/aws-solutions-architect-professional-practice-questions-part-4
Part 5: https://www.awslagi.com/aws-solutions-architect-professional-practice-questions-part-5
Part 6: https://www.awslagi.com/aws-solutions-architect-professional-practice-questions-part-6
Part 7: https://www.awslagi.com/aws-solutions-architect-professional-practice-questions-part-7
Part 8: https://www.awslagi.com/aws-solutions-architect-professional-practice-questions-part-8
81. A company is running a .NET three-tier web application on AWS. The team currently uses XL storage optimized instances to store serve the website’s image and video files on local instance storage. The company has encountered issues with data loss from replication and instance failures. The Solutions Architect has been asked to redesign this application to improve its reliability while keeping costs low. Which solution will meet these requirements?
A. Set up a new Amazon EFS share, move all image and video files to this share, and then attach this new drive as a mount point to all existing servers. Create an Elastic Load Balancer with Auto Scaling general purpose instances. Enable Amazon CloudFront to the Elastic Load Balancer. Enable Cost Explorer and use AWS Trusted advisor checks to continue monitoring the environment for future savings.
B. Implement Auto Scaling with general purpose instance types and an Elastic Load Balancer. Enable an Amazon CloudFront distribution to Amazon S3 and move images and video files to Amazon S3. Reserve general purpose instances to meet base performance requirements. Use Cost Explorer and AWS Trusted Advisor checks to continue monitoring the environment for future savings.
C. Move the entire website to Amazon S3 using the S3 website hosting feature. Remove all the web servers and have Amazon S3 communicate directly with the application servers in Amazon VPC.
D. Use AWS Elastic Beanstalk to deploy the .NET application. Move all images and video files to Amazon EFS. Create an Amazon CloudFront distribution that points to the EFS share. Reserve the m4.4xl instances needed to meet base performance requirements.
82. A company has a serverless application comprised of Amazon CloudFront, Amazon API Gateway, and AWS Lambda functions. The current deployment process of the application code is to create a new version number of the Lambda function and run an AWS CLI script to update. If the new function version has errors, another CLI script reverts by deploying the previous working version of the function. The company would like to decrease the time to deploy new versions of the application logic provided by the Lambda functions, and also reduce the time to detect and revert when errors are identified. How can this be accomplished?
A. Create and deploy nested AWS CloudFormation stacks with the parent stack consisting of the AWS CloudFront distribution and API Gateway, and the child stack containing the Lambda function. For changes to Lambda, create an AWS CloudFormation change set and deploy; if errors are triggered, revert the AWS CloudFormation change set to the previous version.
B. Use AWS SAM and built-in AWS CodeDeploy to deploy the new Lambda version, gradually shift traffic to the new version, and use pre-traffic and post-traffic test functions to verify code. Rollback if Amazon CloudWatch alarms are triggered.
C. Refactor the AWS CLI scripts into a single script that deploys the new Lambda version. When deployment is completed, the script tests execute. If errors are detected, revert to the previous Lambda version.
D. Create and deploy an AWS CloudFormation stack that consists of a new API Gateway endpoint that references the new Lambda version. Change the CloudFront origin to the new API Gateway endpoint, monitor errors and if detected, change the AWS CloudFront origin to the previous API Gateway endpoint.
83. A company has multiple AWS accounts hosting IT applications. An Amazon CloudWatch Logs agent is installed on all Amazon EC2 instances. The company wants to aggregate all security events in a centralized AWS account dedicated to log storage. Security Administrators need to perform near-real-time gathering and correlating of events across multiple AWS accounts. Which solution satisfies these requirements?
A. Create a Log Audit IAM role in each application AWS account with permissions to view CloudWatch Logs, configure an AWS Lambda function to assume the Log Audit role, and perform an hourly export of CloudWatch Logs data to an Amazon S3 bucket in the logging AWS account.
B. Configure CloudWatch Logs streams in each application AWS account to forward events to CloudWatch Logs in the logging AWS account. In the logging AWS account, subscribe an Amazon Kinesis Data Firehose stream to Amazon CloudWatch Events, and use the stream to persist log data in Amazon S3.
C. Create Amazon Kinesis Data Streams in the logging account, subscribe the stream to CloudWatch Logs streams in each application AWS account, configure an Amazon Kinesis Data Firehose delivery stream with the Data Streams as its source, and persist the log data in an Amazon S3 bucket inside the logging AWS account.
D. Configure CloudWatch Logs agents to publish data to an Amazon Kinesis Data Firehose stream in the logging AWS account, use an AWS Lambda function to read messages from the stream and push messages to Data Firehose, and persist the data in Amazon S3.
84. A company has an existing on-premises three-tier web application. The Linux web servers serve content from a centralized file share on a NAS server because the content is refreshed several times a day from various sources. The existing infrastructure is not optimized and the company would like to move to AWS in order to gain the ability to scale resources up and down in response to load. On-premises and AWS resources are connected using AWS Direct Connect. How can the company migrate the web infrastructure to AWS without delaying the content refresh process?
A. Create a cluster of web server Amazon EC2 instances behind a Classic Load Balancer on AWS. Share an Amazon EBS volume among all instances for the content. Schedule a periodic synchronization of this volume and the NAS server.
B. Create an on-premises file gateway using AWS Storage Gateway to replace the NAS server and replicate content to AWS. On the AWS side, mount the same Storage Gateway bucket to each web server Amazon EC2 instance to serve the content.
C. Expose an Amazon EFS share to on-premises users to serve as the NAS server. Mount the same EFS share to the web server Amazon EC2 instances to serve the content.
D. Create web server Amazon EC2 instances on AWS in an Auto Scaling group. Configure a nightly process where the web server instances are updated from the NAS server.
85. A company is finalizing the architecture for its backup solution for applications running on AWS. All of the applications run on AWS and use at least two Availability Zones in each tier. Company policy requires IT to durably store nightly backups f all its data in at least two locations: production and disaster recovery. The locations must be in different geographic regions. The company also needs the backup to be available to restore immediately at the production data center, and within 24 hours at the disaster recovery location. All backup processes must be fully automated. What is the MOST cost-effective backup solution that will meet all requirements?
A. Back up all the data to a large Amazon EBS volume attached to the backup media server in the production region. Run automated scripts to snapshot these volumes nightly, and copy these snapshots to the disaster recovery region.
B. Back up all the data to Amazon S3 in the disaster recovery region. Use a lifecycle policy to move this data to Amazon Glacier in the production region immediately. Only the data is replicated; remove the data from the S3 bucket in the disaster recovery region.
C. Back up all the data to Amazon Glacier in the production region. Set up cross-region replication of this data to Amazon Glacier in the disaster recovery region. Set up a lifecycle policy to delete any data older than 60 days.
D. Back up all the data to Amazon S3 in the production region. Set up cross-region replication of this S3 bucket to another region and set up a lifecycle policy in the second region to immediately move this data to Amazon Glacier.
86. A large company experienced a drastic increase in its monthly AWS spend. This is after Developers accidentally launched Amazon EC2 instances in unexpected regions. The company has established practices around least privileges for Developers and controls access to on-premises resources using Active Directory groups. The company now want to control costs by restricting the level of access that Developers have to the AWS Management Console without impacting their productivity. The company would also like to allow Developers to launch Amazon EC2 in only one region, without limiting access to other services in any region.
How can this company achieve these new security requirements while minimizing the administrative burden on the Operations team?
A. Set up SAML-based authentication tied to an IAM role that has an AdministrativeAccess managed policy attached to it. Attach a customer managed policy that denies access to Amazon EC2 in each region except for the one required.
B. Create an IAM user for each Developer and add them to the developer IAM group that has the PowerUserAccess managed policy attached to it. Attach a customer managed policy that allows the Developers access to Amazon EC2 only in the required region.
C. Set up SAML-based authentication tied to an IAM role that has a PowerUserAccess managed policy and a customer managed policy that deny all the Developers access to any AWS services except AWS Service Catalog. Within AWS Service Catalog, create a product containing only the EC2 resources in the approved region.
D. Set up SAML-based authentication tied to an IAM role that has the PowerUserAccess managed policy attached to it. Attach a customer managed policy that denies access to Amazon EC2 in each region except for the one required.
87. A Solutions Architect must design a highly available, stateless, REST service. The service will require multiple persistent storage layers for service object meta information and the delivery of content. Each request needs to be authenticated and securely processed. There is a requirement to keep costs as low as possible?
How can these requirements be met?
A. Use AWS Fargate to host a container that runs a self-contained REST service. Set up an Amazon ECS service that is fronted by an Application Load Balancer (ALB). Use a custom authenticator to control access to the API. Store request meta information in Amazon DynamoDB with Auto Scaling and static content in a secured S3 bucket. Make secure signed requests for Amazon S3 objects and proxy the data through the REST service interface.
B. Use AWS Fargate to host a container that runs a self-contained REST service. Set up an ECS service that is fronted by a cross-zone ALB. Use an Amazon Cognito user pool to control access to the API. Store request meta information in DynamoDB with Auto Scaling and static content in a secured S3 bucket. Generate presigned URLs when returning references to content stored in Amazon S3.
C. Set up Amazon API Gateway and create the required API resources and methods. Use an Amazon Cognito user pool to control access to the API. Configure the methods to use AWS Lambda proxy integrations, and process each resource with a unique AWS Lambda function. Store request meta information in DynamoDB with Auto Scaling and static content in a secured S3 bucket. Generate presigned URLs when returning references to content stored in Amazon S3.
D. Set up Amazon API Gateway and create the required API resources and methods. Use an Amazon API Gateway custom authorizer to control access to the API. Configure the methods to use AWS Lambda custom integrations, and process each resource with a unique Lambda function. Store request meta information in an Amazon ElastiCache Multi-AZ cluster and static content in a secured S3 bucket. Generate presigned URLs when returning references to content stored in Amazon S3.
88. A Solutions Architect must establish a patching plan for a large mixed fleet of Windows and Linux servers. The patching plan must be implemented securely, be audit ready, and comply with the company’s business requirements. Which option will meet these requirements with MINIMAL effort?
A. Install and use an OS-native patching service to manage the update frequency and release approval for all instances. Use AWS Config to verify the OS state on each instance and report on any patch compliance issues.
B. Use AWS Systems Manager on all instances to manage patching. Test patches outside of production and then deploy during a maintenance window with the appropriate approval.
C. Use AWS OpsWorks for Chef Automate to run a set of scripts that will iterate through all instances of a given type. Issue the appropriate OS command to get and install updates on each instance, including any required restarts during the maintenance window.
D. Migrate all applications to AWS OpsWorks and use OpsWorks automatic patching support to keep the OS up-to-date following the initial installation. Use AWS Config to provide audit and compliance reporting.
89. A company runs a video processing platform. Files are uploaded by users who connect to a web server, which stores them on an Amazon EFS share. This web server is running on a single Amazon EC2 instance. A different group of instances, running in an Auto Scaling group, scans the EFS share directory structure for new files to process and generates new videos (thumbnails, different resolution, compression, etc.) according to the instructions file, which is uploaded along with the video files. A different application running on a group of instances managed by an Auto Scaling group processes the video files and then deletes them from the EFS share. The results are stored in an S3 bucket. Links to the processed video files are emailed to the customer. The company has recently discovered that as they add more instances to the Auto Scaling Group, many files are processed twice, so image processing speed is not improved. The maximum size of these video files is 2GB. What should the Solutions Architect do to improve reliability and reduce the redundant processing of video files?
A. Modify the web application to upload the video files directly to Amazon S3. Use Amazon CloudWatch Events to trigger an AWS Lambda function every time a file is uploaded, and have this Lambda function put a message into an Amazon SQS queue. Modify the video processing application to read from SQS queue for new files and use the queue depth metric to scale instances in the video processing Auto Scaling group.
B. Set up a cron job on the web server instance to synchronize the contents of the EFS share into Amazon S3. Trigger an AWS Lambda function every time a file is uploaded to process the video file and store the results in Amazon S3. Using Amazon CloudWatch Events trigger an Amazon SES job to send an email to the customer containing the link to the processed file.
C. Rewrite the web application to run directly from Amazon S3 and use Amazon API Gateway to upload the video files to an S3 bucket. Use an S3 trigger to run an AWS Lambda function each time a file is uploaded to process and store new video files in a different bucket. Using CloudWatch Events, trigger an SES job to send an email to the customer containing the link to the processed file.
D. Rewrite the application to run from Amazon S3 and upload the video files to an S3 bucket. Each time a new file is uploaded, trigger an AWS Lambda function to put a message in an SQS queue containing the link and the instructions. Modify the video processing application to read from the SQS queue and the S3 bucket. Use the queue depth metric to adjust the size of the Auto Scaling group for video processing instances.
90. An organization has a write-intensive mobile application that uses Amazon API Gateway, AWS Lambda, and Amazon DynamoDB. The application has scaled well, however, costs have increased exponentially because of higher than anticipated Lambda costs. The application’s use is unpredictable, but there has been a steady 20% increase in utilization every month. While monitoring the current Lambda functions, the Solutions Architect notices that the executiontime averages 4.5 minutes. Most of the wait time is the result of a high-latency network call to a 3- TB MySQL database server that is on-premises. A VPN is used to connect to the VPC, so the Lambda functions have been configured with a five-minute timeout. How can the Solutions Architect reduce the cost of the current architecture?
A. Replace the VPN with AWS Direct Connect to reduce the network latency to the on-premises MySQL database.
Enable local caching in the mobile application to reduce the Lambda function invocation calls.
Monitor the Lambda function performance; gradually adjust the timeout and memory properties to lower values while maintaining an acceptable execution time.
Offload the frequently accessed records from DynamoDB to Amazon ElastiCache.
B. Replace the VPN with AWS Direct Connect to reduce the network latency to the on-premises MySQL database.
Cache the API Gateway results to Amazon CloudFront.
Use Amazon EC2 Reserved Instances instead of Lambda.
Enable Auto Scaling on EC2, and use Spot Instances during peak times.
Enable DynamoDB Auto Scaling to manage target utilization.
C. Migrate the MySQL database server into a Multi-AZ Amazon RDS for MySQL. Enable caching of the Amazon API Gateway results in Amazon CloudFront to reduce the number of Lambda function invocations.
Monitor the Lambda function performance; gradually adjust the timeout and memory properties to lower values while maintaining an acceptable execution time.
Enable DynamoDB Accelerator for frequently accessed records, and enable the DynamoDB Auto Scaling feature.
D. Migrate the MySQL database server into a Multi-AZ Amazon RDS for MySQL. Enable API caching on API Gateway to reduce the number of Lambda function invocations.
Continue to monitor the AWS Lambda function performance; gradually adjust the timeout and memory properties to lower values while maintaining an acceptable execution time.
Enable Auto Scaling in DynamoDB.
91. A company is using an Amazon CloudFront distribution to distribute both static and dynamic content from a web application running behind an Application Load Balancer. The web application requires user authorization and session tracking for dynamic content. The CloudFront distribution has a single cache behavior configured to forward the Authorization, Host, and User-Agent HTTP whitelist headers and a session cookie to the origin. All other cache behavior settings are set to their default value. A valid ACM certificate is applied to the CloudFront distribution with a matching CNAME in the distribution settings. The ACM certificate is also applied to the HTTPS listener for the Application Load Balancer. The CloudFront origin protocol policy is set to HTTPS only. Analysis of the cache statistics report shows that the miss rate for this distribution is very high. What can the Solutions Architect do to improve the cache hit rate for this distribution without causing the SSL/TLS handshake between CloudFront and the Application Load Balancer to fail?
A. Create two cache behaviors for static and dynamic content. Remove the User-Agent and Host HTTP headers from the whitelist headers section on both if the cache behaviors. Remove the session cookie from the whitelist cookies section and the Authorization HTTP header from the whitelist headers section for cache behavior configured for static content.
B. Remove the User-Agent and Authorization HTTPS headers from the whitelist headers section of the cache behavior. Then update the cache behavior to use pre-signed cookies for authorization.
C. Remove the Host HTTP header from the whitelist headers section and remove the session cookie from the whitelist cookies section for the default cache behavior. Enable automatic object compression and use Lambda@Edge viewer request events for user authorization.
D. Create two cache behaviors for static and dynamic content. Remove the User-Agent HTTP header from the whitelist headers section on both of the cache behaviors. Remove the session cookie from the whitelist cookies section and the Authorization HTTP header from the whitelist headers section for cache behavior configured for static content.
92. A Company has a security event whereby an Amazon S3 bucket with sensitive information was made public. Company policy is to never have public S3 objects, and the Compliance team must be informed immediately when any public objects are identified. How can the presence of a public S3 object be detected, set to trigger alarm notifications, and automatically remediated in the future? (Choose two.)
A. Turn on object-level logging for Amazon S3. Turn on Amazon S3 event notifications to notify by using an Amazon SNS topic when a PutObject API call is made with a public-read permission.
B. Configure an Amazon CloudWatch Events rule that invokes an AWS Lambda function to secure the S3 bucket.
C. Use the S3 bucket permissions for AWS Trusted Advisor and configure a CloudWatch event to notify by using Amazon SNS.
D. Turn on object-level logging for Amazon S3. Configure a CloudWatch event to notify by using an SNS topic when a PutObject API call with public-read permission is detected in the AWS CloudTrail logs.
E. Schedule a recursive Lambda function to regularly change all object permissions inside the S3 bucket.
93. A company prefers to limit running Amazon EC2 instances to those that were launched from AMIs pre-approved by the Information Security department. The Development team has an agile continuous integration and deployment process that cannot be stalled by the solution. Which method enforces the required controls with the LEAST impact on the development process? (Choose two.)
A. Use IAM policies to restrict the ability of users or other automated entities to launch EC2 instances based on a specific set of pre-approved AMIs, such as those tagged in a specific way by Information Security.
B. Use regular scans within Amazon Inspector with a custom assessment template to determine if the EC2 instance that the Amazon Inspector Agent is running on is based upon a pre-approved AMI. If it is not, shut down the instance and inform information Security by email that this occurred.
C. Only allow launching of EC2 instances using a centralized DevOps team, which is given work packages via notifications from an internal ticketing system. Users make requests for resources using this ticketing tool, which has manual information security approval steps to ensure that EC2 instances are only launched from approved AMIs.
D. Use AWS Config rules to spot any launches of EC2 instances based on non-approved AMIs, trigger an AWS Lambda function to automatically terminate the instance, and publish a message to an Amazon SNS topic to inform Information Security that this occurred.
E. Use a scheduled AWS Lambda function to scan through the list of running instances within the virtual private cloud (VPC) and determine if any of these are based on unapproved AMIs. Publish a message to an SNS topic to inform Information Security that this occurred and then shut down the instance.
94. A Solutions Architect has been asked to look at a company’s Amazon Redshift cluster, which has quickly become an integral part of its technology and supports key business process. The Solutions Architect is to increase the reliability and availability of the cluster and provide options to ensure that if an issue arises, the cluster can either operate or be restored within four hours. Which of the following solution options BEST addresses the business need in the most cost effective manner?
A. Ensure that the Amazon Redshift cluster has been set up to make use of Auto Scaling groups with the nodes in the cluster spread across multiple Availability Zones.
B. Ensure that the Amazon Redshift cluster creation has been template using AWS CloudFormation so it can easily be launched in another Availability Zone and data populated from the automated Redshift back up stored in Amazon S3.
C. Use Amazon Kinesis Data Firehose to collect the data ahead of ingestion into Amazon Redshift and create clusters using AWS CloudFormation in another region and stream the data to both clusters.
D. Create two identical Amazon Redshift clusters in different regions (one as the primary, one as the secondary). Use Amazon S3 cross-region replication from the primary to secondary). Use Amazon S3 cross-region replication from the primary to secondary region, which triggers an AWS Lambda function to populate the cluster in the secondary region.
95. A company has developed a new billing application that will be released in two weeks. Developers are testing the application running on 10 EC2 instances managed by an Auto Scaling group in subnet 172.31.0.0/24 within VPC A with CIDR block 172.31.0.0/16. The Developers noticed connection timeout errors in the application logs while connecting to an Oracle database running on an Amazon EC2 instance in the same region within VPC B with CIDR block 184.108.40.206/16. The IP of the database instance is hard-coded in the application instances. Which recommendations should a Solutions Architect present to the Developers to solve the problem in a secure way with minimal maintenance and overhead?
A. Disable the SrcDestCheck attribute for all instances running the application and Oracle Database. Change the default route of VPC A to point ENI of the Oracle Database that has an IP address assigned within the range of 220.127.116.11/26
B. Create and attach internet gateways for both VPCs. Configure default routes to the Internet gateways for both VPCs. Assign an Elastic IP for each Amazon EC2 instance in VPC A
C. Create a VPC peering connection between the two VPCs and add a route to the routing table of VPC A that points to the IP address range of 18.104.22.168/16
D. Create an additional Amazon EC2 instance for each VPC as a customer gateway; create one virtual private gateway (VGW) for each VPC, configure an end-to-end VPC, and advertise the routes for 22.214.171.124/16
96. A company is running a high-user-volume media-sharing application on premises. It currently hosts about 400 TB of data with millions of video files. The company is migrating this application to AWS to improve reliability and reduce costs. The Solutions Architecture team plans to store the videos in an Amazon S3 bucket and use Amazon CloudFront to distribute videos to users. The company needs to migrate this application to AWS 10 days with the least amount of downtime possible. The company currently has 1 Gbps connectivity to the Internet with 30 percent free capacity. Which of the following solutions would enable the company to migrate the workload to AWS and meet all of the requirements?
A. Use a multi-part upload in Amazon S3 client to parallel-upload the data to the Amazon S3 bucket over the Internet. Use the throttling feature to ensure that the Amazon S3 client does not use more than 30 percent of available Internet capacity.
B. Request an AWS Snowmobile with 1 PB capacity to be delivered to the data center. Load the data into Snowmobile and send it back to have AWS download that data to the Amazon S3 bucket. Sync the new data that was generated while migration was in flight.
C. Use an Amazon S3 client to transfer data from the data center to the Amazon S3 bucket over the Internet. Use the throttling feature to ensure the Amazon S3 client does not use more than 30 percent of available Internet capacity.
D. Request multiple AWS Snowball devices to be delivered to the data center. Load the data concurrently into these devices and send it back. Have AWS download that data to the Amazon S3 bucket. Sync the new data that was generated while migration was in flight.
97. A company plans to move regulated and security-sensitive businesses to AWS. The Security team is developing a framework to validate the adoption of AWS best practice and industry-recognized compliance standards. The AWS Management Console is the preferred method for teams to provision resources. Which strategies should a Solutions Architect use to meet the business requirements and continuously assess, audit, and monitor the configurations of AWS resources? (Choose two.)
A. Use AWS Config rules to periodically audit changes to AWS resources and monitor the compliance of the configuration. Develop AWS Config custom rules using AWS Lambda to establish a test-driven development approach, and further automate the evaluation of configuration changes against the required controls.
B. Use Amazon CloudWatch Logs agent to collect all the AWS SDK logs. Search the log data using a pre-defined set of filter patterns that machines mutating API calls. Send notifications using Amazon CloudWatch alarms when unintended changes are performed. Archive log data by using a batch export to Amazon S3 and then Amazon Glacier for a long-term retention and auditability.
C. Use AWS CloudTrail events to assess management activities of all AWS accounts. Ensure that CloudTrail is enabled in all accounts and available AWS services. Enable trails, encrypt CloudTrail event log files with an AWS KMS key, and monitor recorded activities with CloudWatch Logs.
D. Use the Amazon CloudWatch Events near-real-time capabilities to monitor system events patterns, and trigger AWS Lambda functions to automatically revert non-authorized changes in AWS resources. Also, target Amazon SNS topics to enable notifications and improve the response time of incident responses.
E. Use CloudTrail integration with Amazon SNS to automatically notify unauthorized API activities. Ensure that CloudTrail is enabled in all accounts and available AWS services. Evaluate the usage of Lambda functions to automatically revert non-authorized changes in AWS resources.
98. A company CFO recently analyzed the company’s AWS monthly bill and identified an opportunity to reduce the cost for AWS Elastic Beanstalk environments in use. The CFO has asked a Solutions Architect to design a highly available solution that will spin up an Elastic Beanstalk environment in the morning and terminate it at the end of the day. The solution should be designed with minimal operational overhead and to minimize costs. It should also be able to handle the increased use of Elastic Beanstalk environments among different teams, and must provide a one-stop scheduler solution for all teams to keep the operational costs low. What design will meet these requirements?
A. Set up a Linux EC2 Micro instance. Configure an IAM role to allow the start and stop of the Elastic Beanstalk environment and attach it to the instance. Create scripts on the instance to start and stop the Elastic Beanstalk environment. Configure cron jobs on the instance to execute the scripts.
B. Develop AWS Lambda functions to start and stop the Elastic Beanstalk environment. Configure a Lambda execution role granting Elastic Beanstalk environment start/stop permissions, and assign the role to the Lambda functions. Configure cron expression Amazon CloudWatch Events rules to trigger the Lambda functions.
C. Develop an AWS Step Functions state machine with “wait” as its type to control the start and stop time. Use the activity task to start and stop the Elastic Beanstalk environment. Create a role for Step Functions to allow it to start and stop the Elastic Beanstalk environment. Invoke Step Functions daily.
D. Configure a time-based Auto Scaling group. In the morning, have the Auto Scaling group scale up an Amazon EC2 instance and put the Elastic Beanstalk environment start command in the EC2 instance user date. At the end of the day, scale down the instance number to 0 to terminate the EC2 instance.
99. A Solutions Architect must create a cost-effective backup solution for a company’s 500MB source code repository of proprietary and sensitive applications. The repository runs on Linux and backs up daily to tape. Tape backups are stored for 1 year. The current solutions are not meeting the company’s needs because it is a manual process that is prone to error, expensive to maintain, and does not meet the need for a Recovery Point Objective (RPO) of 1 hour or Recovery Time Objective (RTO) of 2 hours. The new disaster recovery requirement is for backups to be stored offsite and to be able to restore a single file if needed. Which solution meets the customer’s needs for RTO, RPO, and disaster recovery with the LEAST effort and expense?
A. Replace local tapes with an AWS Storage Gateway virtual tape library to integrate with current backup software. Run backups nightly and store the virtual tapes on Amazon S3 standard storage in US-EAST-1. Use cross-region replication to create a second copy in US-WEST-2. Use Amazon S3 lifecycle policies to perform automatic migration to Amazon Glacier and deletion of expired backups after 1 year?
B. Configure the local source code repository to synchronize files to an AWS Storage Gateway file Amazon gateway to store backup copies in an Amazon S3 Standard bucket. Enable versioning on the Amazon S3 bucket. Create Amazon S3 lifecycle policies to automatically migrate old versions of objects to Amazon S3 Standard 0 Infrequent Access, then Amazon Glacier, then delete backups after 1 year.
C. Replace the local source code repository storage with a Storage Gateway stored volume. Change the default snapshot frequency to 1 hour. Use Amazon S3 lifecycle policies to archive snapshots to Amazon Glacier and remove old snapshots after 1 year. Use cross-region replication to create a copy of the snapshots in US-WEST-2.
D. Replace the local source code repository storage with a Storage Gateway cached volume. Create a snapshot schedule to take hourly snapshots. Use an Amazon CloudWatch Events schedule expression rule to run on hourly AWS Lambda task to copy snapshots from US-EAST -1 to US-WEST-2.
100. An enterprise runs 103 line-of-business applications on virtual machines in an on-premises data center. Many of the applications are simple PHP, Java, or Ruby web applications, are no longer actively developed, and serve little traffic. Which approach should be used to migrate these applications to AWS with the LOWEST infrastructure costs?
A. Deploy the applications to single-instance AWS Elastic Beanstalk environments without a load balancer.
B. Use AWS SMS to create AMIs for each virtual machine and run them in Amazon EC2.
C. Convert each application to a Docker image and deploy to a small Amazon ECS cluster behind an Application Load Balancer.
D. Use VM Import/Export to create AMIs for each virtual machine and run them in single-instance AWS Elastic Beanstalk environments by configuring a custom image.
101. A company is running multiple applications on Amazon EC2. Each application is deployed and managed by multiple business units. All applications are deployed on a single AWS account but on different virtual private clouds (VPCs). The company uses a separate VPC in the same account for test and development purposes. Production applications suffered multiple outages when users accidentally terminated and modified resources that belonged to another business unit. A Solutions Architect has been asked to improve the availability of the company applications while allowing the Developers access to the resources they need. Which option meets the requirements with the LEAST disruption?
A. Create an AWS account for each business unit. Move each business unit’s instances to its own account and set up a federation to allow users to access their business unit’s account.
B. Set up a federation to allow users to use their corporate credentials, and lock the users down to their own VPC. Use a network ACL to block each VPC from accessing other VPCs.
C. Implement a tagging policy based on business units. Create an IAM policy so that each user can terminate instances belonging to their own business units only.
D. Set up role-based access for each user and provide limited permissions based on individual roles and the services for which each user is responsible.
102. A company stores sales transaction data in Amazon DynamoDB tables. To detect anomalous behaviors and respond quickly, all changes to the items stored in the DynamoDB tables must be logged within 30 minutes. Which solution meets the requirements?
A. Copy the DynamoDB tables into Apache Hive tables on Amazon EMR every hour and analyze them for anomalous behaviors. Send Amazon SNS notifications when anomalous behaviors are detected.
B. Use AWS CloudTrail to capture all the APIs that change the DynamoDB tables. Send SNS notifications when anomalous behaviors are detected using CloudTrail event filtering.
C. Use Amazon DynamoDB Streams to capture and send updates to AWS Lambda. Create a Lambda function to output records to Amazon Kinesis Data Streams. Analyze any anomalies with Amazon Kinesis Data Analytics. Send SNS notifications when anomalous behaviors are detected.
D. Use event patterns in Amazon CloudWatch Events to capture DynamoDB API call events with an AWS Lambda function as a target to analyze behavior. Send SNS notifications when anomalous behaviors are detected.
103. A three-tier web application runs on Amazon EC2 instances. Cron daemons are used to trigger scripts that collect the web server, application, and database logs and send them to a centralized location every hour. Occasionally, scaling events or unplanned outages have caused the instances to stop before the latest logs were collected, and the log files were lost. Which of the following options is the MOST reliable way of collecting and preserving the log files?
A. Update the cron to run every 5 minutes instead of every hour to reduce the possibility of log messages being lost in an outage.
B. Use Amazon CloudWatch Events to trigger Amazon Systems Manager Run Command to invoke the log collection scripts more frequently to reduce the possibility of log messages being lost in an outage.
C. Use the Amazon CloudWatch Logs agent to stream log messages directly to CloudWatch Logs. Configure the agent with a batch count of 1 to reduce the possibility of log messages being lost in an outage.
D. Use Amazon CloudWatch Events to trigger AWS Lambda to SSH into each running instance and invoke the log collection scripts more frequently to reduce the possibility of log messages being lost in an outage.
104. A company ingests and processes streaming market data. The data rate is constant. A nightly process that calculates aggregate statistics is run, and each execution takes about 4 hours to complete. The statistical analysis is not mission critical to the business, and previous data points are picked up on the next execution if a particular run fails. The current architecture uses a pool of Amazon EC2 Reserved Instances with 1-year reservations running full time to ingest and store the streaming data in attached Amazon EBS volumes. On Demand EC2 instances are launched each night to perform the nightly processing, accessing the stored data from NFS shares on the ingestion servers, and terminating the nightly processing servers when complete. The Reserved Instance reservations are expiring, and the company needs to determine whether to purchase new reservations or implement a new design. Which is the most cost-effective design?
A. Update the ingestion process to use Amazon Kinesis Data Firehose to save data to Amazon S3. Use a fleet of On-Demand EC2 instances that launches each night to perform the batch processing of the S3 data and terminates when the processing completes.
B. Update the ingestion process to use Amazon Kinesis Data Firehouse to save data to Amazon S3. Use AWS Batch to perform nightly processing with a Spot market bid of 50% of the On-Demand price.
C. Update the ingestion process to use a fleet of EC2 Reserved Instances behind a Network Load Balancer with 3-year leases. Use Batch with Spot instances with a maximum bid of 50% of the OnDemand price for the nightly processing.
D. Update the ingestion process to use Amazon Kinesis Data Firehose to save data to Amazon Redshift. Use an AWS Lambda function scheduled to run nightly with Amazon CloudWatch Events to query Amazon Redshift to generate the daily statistics.
105. A company operates a group of imaging satellites. The satellites stream data to one of the company’s ground stations where processing creates about 5 GB of images per minute. This data is added to network-attached storage, where 2 PB of data are already stored.
The company runs a website that allows its customers to access and purchase the images over the Internet. This website is also running in the ground station. Usage analysis shows that customers are most likely to access images that have been captured in the last 24 hours. The company would like to migrate the image storage and distribution system to AWS to reduce costs and increase the number of customers that can be served. Which AWS architecture and migration strategy will meet these requirements?
A. Use multiple AWS Snowball appliances to migrate the existing imagery to Amazon S3. Create a 1- Gb AWS Direct Connect connection from the ground station to AWS, and upload new data to Amazon S3 through the Direct Connect connection. Migrate the data distribution website to Amazon EC2 instances. By using Amazon S3 as an origin, have this website serve the data through Amazon CloudFront by creating signed URLs.
B. Create a 1-Gb Direct Connect connection from the ground station to AWS. Use the AWS Command Line Interface to copy the existing data and upload new data to Amazon S3 over the Direct Connect connection. Migrate the data distribution website to EC2 instances. By using Amazon S3 as an origin, have this website serve the data through CloudFront by creating signed URLs.
C. Use multiple Snowball appliances to migrate the existing images to Amazon S3. Upload new data by regularly using Snowball appliances to upload data from the network-attached storage. Migrate the data distribution website to EC2 instances. By using Amazon S3 as an origin, have this website serve the data through CloudFront by creating signed URLs.
D. Use multiple Snowball appliances to migrate the existing images to an Amazon EFS file system. Create a 1-Gb Direct Connect connection from the ground station to AWS, and upload new data by mounting the EFS file system over the Direct Connect connection. Migrate the data distribution website to EC2 instances. By using web servers in EC2 that mount the EFS file system as the origin, have this website serve the data through CloudFront by creating signed URLs.
106. A media storage application uploads user photos to Amazon S3 for processing. End users are reporting that some uploaded photos are not being processed properly. The Application Developers trace the logs and find that AWS Lambda is experiencing execution issues when thousands of users are on the system simultaneously. Issues are caused by: Limits around concurrent executions. The performance of Amazon DynamoDB when saving data. Which actions can be taken to increase the performance and reliability of the application? (Choose two.)
A. Evaluate and adjust the read capacity units (RCUs) for the DynamoDB tables.
B. Evaluate and adjust the write capacity units (WCUs) for the DynamoDB tables.
C. Add an Amazon ElastiCache layer to increase the performance of Lambda functions.
D. Configure a dead letter queue that will reprocess failed or timed-out Lambda functions.
E. Use S3 Transfer Acceleration to provide lower-latency access to end users.
107. A large global company wants to migrate a stateless mission-critical application to AWS. The application is based on IBM WebSphere (application and integration middleware), IBM MQ (messaging middleware), and IBM DB2 (database software) on a z/OS operating system. How should the Solutions Architect migrate the application to AWS?
A. Re-host WebSphere-based applications on Amazon EC2 behind a load balancer with Auto Scaling. Re-platform the IBM MQ to an Amazon EC2-based MQ. Re-platform the z/OS-based DB2 to Amazon RDS DB2.
B. Re-host WebSphere-based applications on Amazon EC2 behind a load balancer with Auto Scaling. Re-platform the IBM MQ to an Amazon MQ. Re-platform z/OS-based DB2 to Amazon EC2-based DB2.
C. Orchestrate and deploy the application by using AWS Elastic Beanstalk. Re-platform the IBM MQ to Amazon SQS. Re-platform z/OS-based DB2 to Amazon RDS DB2.
D. Use the AWS Server Migration Service to migrate the IBM WebSphere and IBM DB2 to an Amazon EC2-based solution. Re-platform the IBM MQ to an Amazon MQ.
108. A Solutions Architect is working with a company that is extremely sensitive to its IT costs and wishes to implement controls that will result in a predictable AWS spend each month. Which combination of steps can help the company control and monitor its monthly AWS usage to achieve a cost that is as close as possible to the target amount? (Choose three.)
A. Implement an IAM policy that requires users to specify a ‘workload’ tag for cost allocation when launching Amazon EC2 instances.
B. Contact AWS Support and ask that they apply limits to the account so that users are not able to launch more than a certain number of instance types.
C. Purchase all upfront Reserved Instances that cover 100% of the account’s expected Amazon EC2 usage.
D. Place conditions in the users’ IAM policies that limit the number of instances they are able to launch.
E. Define ‘workload’ as a cost allocation tag in the AWS Billing and Cost Management console.
F. Set up AWS Budgets to alert and notify when a given workload is expected to exceed a defined cost.
109. A company is migrating a subset of its application APIs from Amazon EC2 instances to run on a serverless infrastructure. The company has set up Amazon API Gateway, AWS Lambda, and Amazon DynamoDB for the new application. The primary responsibility of the Lambda function is to obtain data from a third-party Software as a Service (SaaS) provider. For consistency, the Lambda function is attached to the same virtual private cloud (VPC) as the original EC2 instances.
Test users report an inability to use this newly moved functionality, and the company is receiving 5xx errors from API Gateway. Monitoring reports from the SaaS provider shows that the requests never made it to its systems. The company notices that Amazon CloudWatch Logs are being generated by the Lambda functions. When the same functionality is tested against the EC2 systems, it works as expected. What is causing the issue?
A. Lambda is in a subnet that does not have a NAT gateway attached to it to connect to the SaaS provider.
B. The end-user application is misconfigured to continue using the endpoint backed by EC2 instances.
C. The throttle limit set on API Gateway is too low and the requests are not making their way through.
D. API Gateway does not have the necessary permissions to invoke Lambda.
110. A company wants to ensure that the workloads for each of its business units have complete autonomy and a minimal blast radius in AWS. The Security team must be able to control access to the resources and services in the account to ensure that particular services are not used by the business units. How can a Solutions Architect achieve the isolation requirements?
A. Create individual accounts for each business unit and add the account to an OU in AWS Organizations. Modify the OU to ensure that the particular services are blocked. Federate each account with an IdP, and create separate roles for the business units and the Security team.
B. Create individual accounts for each business unit. Federate each account with an IdP and create separate roles and policies for business units and the Security team.
C. Create one shared account for the entire company. Create separate VPCs for each business unit. Create individual IAM policies and resource tags for each business unit. Federate each account with an IdP, and create separate roles for the business units and the Security team.
D. Create one shared account for the entire company. Create individual IAM policies and resource tags for each business unit. Federate the account with an IdP, and create separate roles for the business units and the Security team.
111. A company manages more than 200 separate internet-facing web applications. All of the applications are deployed to AWS in a single AWS Region The fully qualified domain names (FQDNs) of all of the applications are made available through HTTPS using Application Load Balancers (ALBs). The ALBs are configured to use public SSL/TLS certificates. A Solutions Architect needs to migrate the web applications to a multi-region architecture. All HTTPS services should continue to work without interruption. Which approach meets these requirements?
A. Request a certificate for each FQDN using AWS KMS. Associate the certificates with the ALBs in the primary AWS Region. Enable cross-region availability in AWS KMS for the certificates and associate the certificates with the ALBs in the secondary AWS Region.
B. Generate the key pairs and certificate requests for each FQDN using AWS KMS. Associate the certificates with the ALBs in both the primary and secondary AWS Regions.
C. Request a certificate for each FQDN using AWS Certificate Manager. Associate the certificates with the ALBs in both the primary and secondary AWS Regions.
D. Request certificates for each FQDN in both the primary and secondary AWS Regions using AWS Certificate Manager. Associate the certificates with the corresponding ALBs in each AWS Region
112. A company runs a dynamic mission-critical web application that has an SLA of 99.99%. Global application users access the application 24/7. The application is currently hosted on premises and routinely fails to meet its SLA, especially when millions of users access the application concurrently. Remote users complain of latency. How should this application be redesigned to be scalable and allow for automatic failover at the lowest cost?
A. Use Amazon Route 53 failover routing with geolocation-based routing. Host the website on automatically scaled Amazon EC2 instances behind an Application Load Balancer with an additional Application Load Balancer and EC2 instances for the application layer in each region. Use a Multi-AZ deployment with MySQL as the data layer.
B. Use Amazon Route 53 round robin routing to distribute the load evenly to several regions with health checks. Host the website on automatically scaled Amazon ECS with AWS Fargate technology containers behind a Network Load Balancer, with an additional Network Load Balancer and Fargate containers for the application layer in each region. Use Amazon Aurora replicas for the data layer.
C. Use Amazon Route 53 latency-based routing to route to the nearest region with health checks. Host the website in Amazon S3 in each region and use Amazon API Gateway with AWS Lambda for the application layer. Use Amazon DynamoDB global tables as the data layer with Amazon DynamoDB Accelerator (DAX) for caching.
D. Use Amazon Route 53 geolocation-based routing. Host the website on automatically scaled AWS Fargate containers behind a Network Load Balancer with an additional Network Load Balancer and Fargate containers for the application layer in each region. Use Amazon Aurora Multi-Master for Aurora MySQL as the data layer.
113. A company has created an account for individual Development teams, resulting in a total of 200 accounts. All accounts have a single virtual private cloud (VPC) in a single region with multiple microservices running in Docker containers that need to communicate with microservices in other accounts. The Security team requirements state that these microservices must not traverse the public internet, and only certain internal services should be allowed to call other individual services. If there is any denied network traffic for a service, the Security team must be notified of any denied requests, including the source IP. How can connectivity be established between service while meeting the security requirements?
A. Create a VPC peering connection between the VPCs. Use security groups on the instances to allow traffic from the security group IDs that are permitted to call the microservice. Apply network ACLs to and allow traffic from the local VPC and peered VPCs only. Within the task definition in Amazon ECS for each of the microservices, specify a log configuration by using the awslogs driver. Within Amazon CloudWatch Logs, create a metric filter and alarm off of the number of HTTP 403 responses. Create an alarm when the number of messages exceeds a threshold set by the Security team.
B. Ensure that no CIDR ranges are overlapping, and attach a virtual private gateway (VGW) to each VPC. Provision an IPsec tunnel between each VGW and enable route propagation on the route table. Configure security groups on each service to allow the CIDR ranges of the VPCs on the other accounts. Enable VPC Flow Logs, and use an Amazon CloudWatch Logs subscription filter for rejected traffic. Create an IAM role and allow the Security team to call the AssumeRole action for each account.
C. Deploy a transit VPC by using third-party marketplace VPN appliances running on Amazon EC2, dynamically routed VPN connections between the VPN appliance, and the virtual private gateways (VGWs) attached to each VPC within the region. Adjust network ACLs to allow traffic from the local VPC only. Apply security groups to the microservices to allow traffic from the VPN appliances only. Install the awslogs agent on each VPN appliance, and configure logs to forward to Amazon CloudWatch Logs in the security account for the Security team to access.
D. Create a Network Load Balancer (NLB) for each microservice. Attach the NLB to a Private Link endpoint service and whitelist the accounts that will be consuming this service. Create an interface endpoint in the consumer VPC and associate a security group that allows only the security group IDs of the services authorized to call the producer service. On the producer services, create security groups for each microservice and allow only the CIDR range the allowed services. Create VPC Flow Logs on each VPC to capture rejected traffic that will be delivered to an Amazon CloudWatch Logs group. Create a CloudWatch Logs subscription that streams the log data to a security account.
114. A company’s data center is connected to the AWS Cloud over a minimally used 10-Gbps AWS Direct Connect connection with a private virtual interface to its virtual private cloud (VPC). The company internet connection is 200 Mbps, and the company has a 150-TB dataset that is created each Friday. The data must be transferred and available in Amazon S3 on Monday morning. Which is the LEAST expensive way to meet the requirements while allowing for data transfer growth?
A. Order two 80 GB AWS Snowball appliances. Offload the data to the appliances and ship them to AWS. AWS will copy the data from the Snowball appliances to Amazon S3.
B. Create a VPC endpoint for Amazon S3. Copy the data to Amazon S3 by using the VPC endpoint, forcing the transfer to use the Direct Connect connection.
C. Create a VPC endpoint for Amazon S3. Set up a reverse proxy farm behind a Classic Load Balancer in the VPC. Copy the data to Amazon S3 using the proxy.
D. Create a public virtual interface on a Direct Connect connection, and copy the data to Amazon S3 over the connection.
115. A company is currently running a production workload on AWS that is very I/O intensive. Its workload consists of a single tier with 10 c4.8xlarge instances, each with 2 TB gp2 volumes. The number of processing jobs has recently increased, and latency has increased as well. The team realizes that they are constrained on the IOPS. For the application to perform efficiently, they need to increase the IOPS by 3,000 for each of the instances. Which of the following designs will meet the performance goal MOST cost effectively?
A. Change the type of Amazon EBS volume from gp2 to io1 and set provisioned IOPS to 9,000.
B. Increase the size of the gp2 volumes in each instance to 3 TB.
C. Create a new Amazon EFS file system and move all the data to this new file system. Mount this file system to all 10 instances.
D. Create a new Amazon S3 bucket and move all the data to this new bucket. Allow each instance to access this S3 bucket and use it for storage.
116. A hybrid network architecture must be used during a company’s multi-year data center migration from multiple private data centers to AWS. The current data centers are linked together with private fiber. Due to unique legacy applications, NAT cannot be used. During the migration period, many applications will need access to other applications in both the data centers and AWS. Which option offers a hybrid network architecture that is secure and highly available, that allows for high bandwidth and a multi-region deployment post-migration?
A. Use AWS Direct Connect to each data center from different ISPs, and configure routing to failover to the other data center’s Direct Connect if one fails. Ensure that no VPC CIDR blocks overlap one another or the on-premises network.
B. Use multiple hardware VPN connections to AWS from the on-premises data center. Route different subnet traffic through different VPN connections. Ensure that no VPC CIDR blocks overlap one another or the on-premises network.
C. Use a software VPN with clustering both in AWS and the on-premises data center, and route traffic through the cluster. Ensure that no VPC CIDR blocks overlap one another or the on premises network.
D. Use AWS Direct Connect and a VPN as backup, and configure both to use the same virtual private gateway and BGP. Ensure that no VPC CIDR blocks overlap one another or the on premises network.
117. A company has an application that runs a web service on Amazon EC2 instances and stores .jpg images in Amazon S3. The web traffic has a predictable baseline, but often demand spikes unpredictably for short periods of time. The application is loosely coupled and stateless. The .jpg images stored in Amazon S3 are accessed frequently for the first 15 to 20 days, they are seldom accessed thereafter but always need to be immediately available. The CIO has asked to find ways to reduce costs. Which of the following options will reduce costs? (Choose two.)
A. Purchase Reserved instances for baseline capacity requirements and use On-Demand instances for the demand spikes.
B. Configure a lifecycle policy to move the .jpg images on Amazon S3 to S3 IA after 30 days.
C. Use On-Demand instances for baseline capacity requirements and use Spot Fleet instances for the demand spikes.
D. Configure a lifecycle policy to move the .jpg images on Amazon S3 to Amazon Glacier after 30 days. E. Create a script that checks the load on all web servers and terminates unnecessary On-Demand instances.
118. A Solutions Architect is designing the storage layer for a recently purchased application. The application will be running on Amazon EC2 instances and has the following layers and requirements: Data layer:
A POSIX file system shared across many systems.
Service layer: Static file content that requires block storage with more than 100k IOPS.
Which combination of AWS services will meet these needs? (Choose two.)
A. Data layer – Amazon S3
B. Data layer – Amazon EC2 Ephemeral Storage
C. Data layer – Amazon EFS
D. Service layer – Amazon EBS volumes with Provisioned IOPS
E. Service layer – Amazon EC2 Ephemeral Storage
119. The Solutions Architect manages a serverless application that consists of multiple API gateways, AWS Lambda functions, Amazon S3 buckets, and Amazon DynamoDB tables. Customers say that a few application components slow while loading dynamic images, and some are timing out with the “504 Gateway Timeout” error. While troubleshooting the scenario, the Solutions Architect confirms that DynamoDB monitoring metrics are at acceptable levels. Which of the following steps would be optimal for debugging these application issues? (Choose two.)
A. Parse HTTP logs in Amazon API Gateway for HTTP errors to determine the root cause of the errors.
B. Parse Amazon CloudWatch Logs to determine processing times for requested images at specified intervals.
C. Parse VPC Flow Logs to determine if there is packet loss between the Lambda function and S3.
D. Parse AWS X-Ray traces and analyze HTTP methods to determine the root cause of the HTTP errors.
E. Parse S3 access logs to determine if objects being accessed are from specific IP addresses to narrow the scope to geographic latency issues.
120. A company uses Amazon S3 to store documents that may only be accessible to an Amazon EC2 instance in a certain virtual private cloud (VPC). The company fears that a malicious insider with access to this instance could also set up an EC2 instance in another VPC to access these documents. Which of the following solutions will provide the required protection?
A. Use an S3 VPC endpoint and an S3 bucket policy to limit access to this VPC endpoint.
B. Use EC2 instance profiles and an S3 bucket policy to limit access to the role attached to the instance profile.
C. Use S3 client-side encryption and store the key in the instance metadata.
D. Use S3 server-side encryption and protect the key with an encryption context.