Notes: Hi all, We’re sharing AWS Solutions Architect Professional AWS SAP-C02 Practice Exam Part 7 will familiarize you with types of questions you may encounter on the certification exam and help you determine your readiness or if you need more preparation and/or experience. Successful completion of the practice exam does not guarantee you will pass the certification exam as the actual exam is longer and covers a wider range of topics. We highly recommend you should take AWS Solutions Architect Professional Actual Exam Version because it include actual exam questions and highlighted answers are collected in our exam. It will help you pass exam in easier way.
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Part 1: https://www.awslagi.com/aws-solutions-architecture-professional-practice-questions/
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Part 3: https://www.awslagi.com/aws-solutions-architect-professional-practice-questions-part-3
Part 4: https://www.awslagi.com/aws-solutions-architect-professional-practice-questions-part-4
Part 5: https://www.awslagi.com/aws-solutions-architect-professional-practice-questions-part-5
Part 6: https://www.awslagi.com/aws-solutions-architect-professional-practice-questions-part-6
Part 7: https://www.awslagi.com/aws-solutions-architect-professional-practice-questions-part-7
Part 8: https://www.awslagi.com/aws-solutions-architect-professional-practice-questions-part-8
41. A company is building an AWS landing zone and has asked a Solutions Architect to design a multi-account access strategy that will allow hundreds of users to use corporate credentials to access the AWS Console. The company is running a Microsoft Active Directory and users will use an AWS Direct Connect connection to connect to AWS. The company also wants to be able to federate to third-party services and providers, including custom applications. Which solution meets the requirements by using the LEAST amount of management overhead?
A. Connect the Active Directory to AWS by using single sign-on and an Active Directory Federation Services (AD FS) with SAML 2.0, and then configure the identity Provider (IdP) system to use form-based authentication. Build the AD FS portal page with corporate branding, and integrate third-party applications that support SAML 2.0 as required.
B. Create a two-way Forest trust relationship between the on-premises Active Directory and the AWS Directory Service. Set up AWS Single Sign-On with AWS Organizations. Use single sign-on integrations for connections with third-party applications.
C. Configure single sign-on by connecting the on-premises Active Directory using the AWS Directory Service AD Connector. Enable federation to the AWS services and accounts by using the IAM applications and services linking function. Leverage third-party single sign-on as needed.
D. Connect the company’s Active Directory to AWS by using AD FS and SAML 2.0. Configure the AD FS claim rule to leverage Regex third-party single sign-on as needed, and add it to the AD FS server.
42. A company uses an Amazon EMR cluster to process data once a day. The raw data comes from Amazon S3, and the resulting processed data is also stored in Amazon S3. The processing must complete within 4 hours; currently, it only takes 3 hours. However, the processing time is taking 5 to 10 minutes. longer each week due to an increasing volume of raw data. The team is also concerned about rising costs as the compute capacity increases. The EMR cluster is currently running on three m3 xlarge instances (one master and two core nodes). Which of the following solutions will reduce costs related to the increasing compute needs?
A. Add additional task nodes, but have the team purchase an all-upfront convertible Reserved Instance for each additional node to offset the costs.
B. Add additional task nodes, but use instance fleets with the master node in on-Demand mode and a mix of On-Demand and Spot Instances for the core and task nodes. Purchase a scheduled Reserved Instances for the master node.
C. Add additional task nodes, but use instance fleets with the master node in Spot mode and a mix of On-Demand and Spot Instances for the core and task nodes. Purchase enough scheduled Reserved Instances to offset the cost of running any On-Demand instances.
D. Add additional task nodes, but use instance fleets with the master node in On-Demand mode and a mix of On-Demand and Spot Instances for the core and task nodes. Purchase a standard all upfront Reserved Instance for the master node.
43. A Solutions Architect is designing the storage layer for a data warehousing application. The data files are large, but they have statically placed metadata at the beginning of each file that describes the size and placement of the file’s index. The data files are read in by a fleet of Amazon EC2 instances that store the index size, index location, and other category information about the data file in a database. That database is used by Amazon EMR to group files together for deeper analysis. What would be the MOST cost-effective, high availability storage solution for this workflow?
A. Store the data files in Amazon S3 and use Range GET for each file’s metadata, then index the relevant data.
B. Store the data files in Amazon EFS mounted by the EC2 fleet and EMR nodes.
C. Store the data files on Amazon EBS volumes and allow the EC2 fleet and EMR to mount and unmount the volumes where they are needed.
D. Store the content of the data files in Amazon DynamoDB tables with the metadata, index, and data as their own keys.
44. A finance company is running its business-critical application on current-generation Linux EC2 instances. The application includes a self-managed MySQL database performing heavy I/O operations. The application is working fine to handle a moderate amount of traffic during the month. However, it slows down during the final three days of each month due to month-end reporting, even though the company is using Elastic Load Balancers and Auto Scaling within its infrastructure to meet the increased demand. Which of the following actions would allow the database to handle the month-end load with the LEAST impact on performance?
A. Pre-warming Elastic Load Balancers, using a bigger instance type, changing all Amazon EBS volumes to GP2 volumes.
B. Performing a one-time migration of the database cluster to Amazon RDS, and creating several additional read replicas to handle the load during end of month.
C. Using Amazon CloudWatch with AWS Lambda to change the type, size, or IOPS of Amazon EBS volumes in the cluster based on a specific CloudWatch metric.
D. Replacing all existing Amazon EBS volumes with new PIOPS volumes that have the maximum available storage size and I/O per second by taking snapshots before the end of the month and reverting back afterwards.
45. A company is adding a new approved external vendor that only supports IPv6 connectivity. The company’s backend systems sit in the private subnet of an Amazon VPC. The company uses a NAT gateway to allow these systems to communicate with external vendors over IPv4. Company policy requires systems that communicate with external vendors use a security group that limits access to only approved external vendors. The virtual private cloud (VPC) uses the default network ACL. The Systems Operator successfully assigns IPv6 addresses to each of the backend systems. The Systems Operator also updates the outbound security group to include the IPv6 CIDR of the external vendor (destination). The systems within the VPC are able to ping one another successfully over IPv6. However, these systems are unable to communicate with the external vendor. What changes are required to enable communication with the external vendor?
A. Create an IPv6 NAT instance. Add a route for destination 0.0.0.0/0 pointing to the NAT instance.
B. Enable IPv6 on the NAT gateway. Add a route for destination ::/0 pointing to the NAT gateway.
C. Enable IPv6 on the internet gateway. Add a route for destination 0.0.0.0/0 pointing to the IGW.
D. Create an egress-only internet gateway. Add a route for destination ::/0 pointing to the gateway.
46. A company is migrating its marketing website and content management system from an on-premises data center to AWS. The company wants the AWS application to be developed in a VPC with Amazon EC2 instances used for the web servers and an Amazon RDS instance for the database. The company has a runbook document that describes the installation process of the on-premises system. The company would like to base the AWS system on the processes referenced in the runbook document. The runbook document describes the installation and configuration of the operating systems, network settings, the website, and content management system software on the servers. After the migration is complete, the company wants to be able to make changes quickly to take advantage of other AWS features. How can the application and environment be deployed and automated in AWS, while allowing for future changes?
A. Update the runbook to describe how to create the VPC, the EC2 instances, and the RDS instance for the application by using the AWS Console. Make sure that the rest of the steps in the runbook are updated to reflect any changes that may come from the AWS migration.
B. Write a Python script that uses the AWS API to create the VPC, the EC2 instances, and the RDS instance for the application. Write shell scripts that implement the rest of the steps in the runbook. Have the Python script copy and run the shell scripts on the newly created instances to complete the installation.
C. Write an AWS CloudFormation template that creates the VPC, the EC2 instances, and the RDS instance for the application. Ensure that the rest of the steps in the runbook are updated to reflect any changes that may come from the AWS migration.
D. Write an AWS CloudFormation template that creates the VPC, the EC2 instances, and the RDS instance for the application. Include EC2 user data in the AWS CloudFormation template to install and configure the software
47. A company wants to migrate its website from an on-premises data center onto AWS. At the same time, it wants to migrate the website to a containerized microservice-based architecture to improve the availability and cost efficiency. The company’s security policy states that privileges and network permissions must be configured according to best practice, using least privilege. A Solutions Architect must create a containerized architecture that meets the security requirements and has deployed the application to an Amazon ECS cluster. What steps are required after the deployment to meet the requirements? (Choose two.)
A. Create tasks using the bridge network mode.
B. Create tasks using the aws vpc network mode.
C. Apply security groups to Amazon EC2 instances, and use IAM roles for EC2 instances to access other resources.
D. Apply security groups to the tasks, and pass IAM credentials into the container at launch time to access other resources.
E. Apply security groups to the tasks, and use IAM roles for tasks to access other resources.
48. A large company has many business units. Each business unit has multiple AWS accounts for different purposes. The CIO of the company sees that each business unit has data that would be useful to share with other parts of the company in total, there are about 10 PB of data that needs to be shared with users in 1,000 AWS accounts. The data is proprietary, so some of it should only be available to users with specific job types. Some of the data is used for throughput of intensive workloads, such as simulations. The number of accounts changes frequently because of new initiatives, acquisitions, and divestitures. A Solutions Architect has been asked to design a system that will allow for sharing data for use in AWS with all of the employees in the company. Which approach will allow for secure data sharing in scalable way?
A. Store the data in a single Amazon S3 bucket. Create an IAM role for every combination of job type and business unit that allows to appropriate read/write access based on object prefixes in the S3 bucket. The roles should have trust policies that allow the business unit’s AWS accounts to assume their roles. Use IAM in each business unit’s AWS account to prevent them from assuming roles for a different job type. Users get credentials to access the data by using AssumeRole from their business unit’s AWS account. Users can then use those credentials with an S3 client.
B. Store the data in a single Amazon S3 bucket. Write a bucket policy that uses conditions to grant read and write access where appropriate, based on each user’s business unit and job type. Determine the business unit with the AWS account accessing the bucket and the job type with a prefix in the IAM user’s name. Users can access data by using IAM credentials from their business unit’s AWS account with an S3 client.
C. Store the data in a series of Amazon S3 buckets. Create an application running in Amazon EC2 that is integrated with the company’s identity provider (IdP) that authenticates users and allows them to download or upload data through the application. The application uses the business unit and job type information in the IdP to control what users can upload and download through the application. The users can access the data through the application’s API.
D. Store the data in a series of Amazon S3 buckets. Create an AWS STS token vending machine that is integrated with the company’s identity provider (IdP). When a user logs in, have the token vending machine attach an IAM policy that assumes the role that limits the user’s access and/or upload only the data the user is authorized to access. Users can get credentials by authenticating to the token vending machine’s website or API and then use those credentials with an S3 client.
49. A company has a High Performance Computing (HPC) cluster in its on-premises data center which runs thousands of jobs in parallel for one week every month, processing petabytes of images. The images are stored on a network file server, which is replicated to a disaster recovery site. The on-premises data center has reached capacity and has started to spread the jobs out over the course of month in order to better utilize the cluster, causing a delay in the job completion. The company has asked its Solutions Architect to design a cost-effective solution on AWS to scale beyond the current capacity of 5,000 cores and 10 petabytes of data. The solution must require the least amount of management overhead and maintain the current level of durability. Which solution will meet the company’s requirements?
A. Create a container in the Amazon Elastic Container Registry with the executable file for the job. Use Amazon ECS with Spot Fleet in Auto Scaling groups. Store the raw data in Amazon EBS SC1 volumes and write the output to Amazon S3.
B. Create an Amazon EMR cluster with a combination of On Demand and Reserved Instance Task Nodes that will use Spark to pull data from Amazon S3. Use Amazon DynamoDB to maintain a list of jobs that need to be processed by the Amazon EMR cluster.
C. Store the raw data in Amazon S3, and use AWS Batch with Managed Compute Environments to create Spot Fleets. Submit jobs to AWS Batch Job Queues to pull down objects from Amazon S3 onto Amazon EBS volumes for temporary storage to be processed, and then write the results back to Amazon S3.
D. Submit the list of jobs to be processed to an Amazon SQS to queue the jobs that need to be processed. Create a diversified cluster of Amazon EC2 worker instances using Spot Fleet that will automatically scale based on the queue depth. Use Amazon EFS to store all the data sharing it across all instances in the cluster.
50. A company runs an e-commerce platform with front-end and e-commerce tiers. Both tiers run on LAMP stacks with the front-end instances running behind a load balancing appliance that has a virtual offering on AWS. Currently, the Operations team uses SSH to log in to the instances to maintain patches and address other concerns. The platform has recently been the target of multiple attacks, including
– A DDoS attack.
– An SQL injection attack.
– Several successful dictionary attacks on SSH accounts on the web servers.
The company wants to improve the security of the e-commerce platform by migrating to AWS. The company’s Solutions Architects have decided to use the following approach:
– Code review the existing application and fix any SQL injection issues.
– Migrate the web application to AWS and leverage the latest AWS Linux AMI to address initial security patching.
– Install AWS Systems Manager to manage patching and allow the system administrators to run commands on all instances, as needed.
What additional steps will address all of other identical attack types while providing high availability and minimizing risk?
A. Enable SSH access to the Amazon EC2 instances using a security group that limits access to specific IPs. Migrate on-premises MySQL to Amazon RDS Multi-AZ. Install the third-party load balancer from the AWS Marketplace and migrate the existing rules to the load balancer AWS instances. Enable AWS Shield Standard for DDoS protection.
B. Disable SSH access to the Amazon EC2 instances. Migrate on-premises MySQL to Amazon RDS Multi-AZ. Leverage an Elastic Load Balancer to spread the load and enable AWS Shield Advanced for protection. Add an Amazon CloudFront distribution in front of the website. Enable AWS WAF on the distribution to manage the rules.
C. Enable SSH access to the Amazon EC2 instances through a bastion host secured by limiting access to specific IP addresses. Migrate on-premises MySQL to a self-managed EC2 instance. Leverage an AWS Elastic Load Balancer to spread the load and enable AWS Shield Standard for DDoS protection. Add an Amazon CloudFront distribution in front of the website.
D. Disable SSH access to the EC2 instances. Migrate on-premises MySQL to Amazon RDS Single AZ. Leverage an AWS Elastic Load Balancer to spread the load. Add an Amazon CloudFront distribution in front of the website. Enable AWS WAF on the distribution to manage the rules.
51. A company has more than 100 AWS accounts, with one VPC per account, that need outbound HTTPS connectivity to the internet. The current design contains one NAT gateway per Availability Zone (AZ) in each VPC. To reduce costs and obtain information about outbound traffic, management has asked for a new architecture for internet access. Which solution will meet the current needs, and continue to grow as new accounts are provisioned, while reducing costs?
A. Create a transit VPC across two AZs using a third-party routing appliance. Create a VPN connection to each VPC. Default route internet traffic to the transit VPC.
B. Create multiple hosted-private AWS Direct Connect VIFs, one per account, each with a Direct Connect gateway. Default route internet traffic back to an on-premises router to route to the internet.
C. Create a central VPC for outbound internet traffic. Use VPC peering to default route to a set of redundant NAT gateway in the central VPC.
D. Create a proxy fleet in a central VPC account. Create an AWS PrivateLink endpoint service in the central VPC. Use PrivateLink interface for internet connectivity through the proxy fleet.
52. As a part of building large applications in the AWS Cloud, the Solutions Architect is required to implement the perimeter security protection. Applications running on AWS have the following endpoints:
– Application Load Balancer
– Amazon API Gateway regional endpoint
– Elastic IP address-based EC2 instances.
– Amazon S3 hosted websites.
– Classic Load Balancer
The Solutions Architect must design a solution to protect all of the listed web front ends and provide the following security capabilities:
– DDoS protection
– SQL injection protection
– IP address whitelist/blacklist
– HTTP flood protection
– Bad bot scraper protection
How should the Solutions Architect design the solution?
A. Deploy AWS WAF and AWS Shield Advanced on all web endpoints. Add AWS WAF rules to enforce the company’s requirements.
B. Deploy Amazon CloudFront in front of all the endpoints. The CloudFront distribution provides perimeter protection. Add AWS Lambda-based automation to provide additional security.
C. Deploy Amazon CloudFront in front of all the endpoints. Deploy AWS WAF and AWS Shield Advanced. Add AWS WAF rules to enforce the company’s requirements. Use AWS Lambda to automate and enhance the security posture.
D. Secure the endpoints by using network ACLs and security groups and adding rules to enforce the company’s requirements. Use AWS Lambda to automatically update the rules.
53. A company currently runs a secure application on Amazon EC2 that takes files from on-premises locations through AWS Direct Connect, processes them, and uploads them to a single Amazon S3 bucket. The application uses HTTPS for encryption in transit to Amazon S3, and S3 server-side encryption to encrypt at rest. Which of the following changes should the Solutions Architect recommend to make this solution more secure without impeding application’s performance?
A. Add a NAT gateway. Update the security groups on the EC2 instance to allow access to and from the S3 IP range only. Configure an S3 bucket policy that allows communication from the NAT gateway Elastic IP address only.
B. Add a VPC endpoint. Configure endpoint policies on the VPC endpoint to allow access to the required Amazon S3 buckets only. Implement an S3 bucket policy that allows communication from the VPC’s source IP range only.
C. Add a NAT gateway. Update the security groups on the EC2 instance to allow access to and from the S3 IP range only. Configure an S3 bucket policy that allows communication from the source public IP address of the on-premises network only.
D. Add a VPC endpoint. Configure endpoint policies on the VPC endpoint to allow access to the required S3 buckets only. Implement an S3 bucket policy that allows communication from the VPC endpoint only.
54. A bank is designing an online customer service portal where customers can chat with customer service agents. The portal is required to maintain a 15-minute RPO or RTO in case of a regional disaster. Banking regulations require that all customer service chat transcripts must be preserved on durable storage for at least 7 years, chat conversations must be encrypted in-flight, and transcripts must be encrypted at rest. The Data Lost Prevention team requires that data at rest must be encrypted using a key that the team controls, rotates, and revokes. Which design meets these requirements?
A. The chat application logs each chat message into Amazon CloudWatch Logs. A scheduled AWS Lambda function invokes a CloudWatch Logs. CreateExportTask every 5 minutes to export chat transcripts to Amazon S3. The S3 bucket is configured for cross-region replication to the backup region. Separate AWS KMS keys are specified for the CloudWatch Logs group and the S3 bucket.
B. The chat application logs each chat message into two different Amazon CloudWatch Logs groups in two different regions, with the same AWS KMS key applied. Both CloudWatch Logs groups are configured to export logs into an Amazon Glacier vault with a 7-year vault lock policy with a KMS key specified.
C. The chat application logs each chat message into Amazon CloudWatch Logs. A subscription filter on the CloudWatch Logs group feeds into an Amazon Kinesis Data Firehose which streams the chat messages into an Amazon S3 bucket in the backup region. Separate AWS KMS keys are specified for the CloudWatch Logs group and the Kinesis Data Firehose.
D. The chat application logs each chat message into Amazon CloudWatch Logs. The CloudWatch Logs group is configured to export logs into an Amazon Glacier vault with a 7-year vault lock policy. Glacier cross-region replication mirrors chat archives to the backup region. Separate AWS KMS keys are specified for the CloudWatch Logs group and the Amazon Glacier vault.
55. A company needs to run a software package that has a license that must be run on the same physical host for the duration of its use. The software package is only going to be used for 90 days. The company requires patching and restarting of all instances every 30 days. How can these requirements be met using AWS?
A. Run a dedicated instance with auto-placement disabled.
B. Run the instance on a dedicated host with Host Affinity set to Host.
C. Run an On-Demand instance with a Reserved Instance to ensure consistent placement.
D. Run the instance on a licensed host with termination set for 90 days.
56. A company is moving a business-critical, multi-tier application to AWS. The architecture consists of a desktop client application and server infrastructure. The server infrastructure resides in an on-premises data center that frequently fails to maintain the application uptime SLA of 99.95%. A Solutions Architect must re-architect the application to ensure that it can meet or exceed the SLA. The application contains a PostgreSQL database running on a single virtual machine. The business logic and presentation layers are load balanced between multiple virtual machines. Remote users complain about slow load times while using this latency-sensitive application. Which of the following will meet the availability requirements with little change to the application while improving user experience and minimizing costs?
A. Migrate the database to a PostgreSQL database in Amazon EC2. Host the application and presentation layers in automatically scaled Amazon ECS containers behind an Application Load Balancer. Allocate an Amazon WorkSpaces WorkSpace for each end user to improve the user experience.
B. Migrate the database to an Amazon RDS Aurora PostgreSQL configuration. Host the application and presentation layers in an Auto Scaling configuration on Amazon EC2 instances behind an Application Load Balancer. Use Amazon AppStream 2.0 to improve the user experience.
C. Migrate the database to an Amazon RDS PostgreSQL Multi-AZ configuration. Host the application and presentation layers in automatically scaled AWS Fargate containers behind a Network Load Balancer. Use Amazon ElastiCache to improve the user experience.
D. Migrate the database to an Amazon Redshift cluster with at least two nodes. Combine and host the application and presentation layers in automatically scaled Amazon ECS containers behind an Application Load Balancer. Use Amazon CloudFront to improve the user experience.
57. A company is using AWS for production and development workloads. Each business unit has its own AWS account for production, and a separate AWS account to develop and deploy its applications. The Information Security department has introduced new security policies that limit access for terminating certain Amazon ECs instances in all accounts to a small group of individuals from the Security team. How can the Solutions Architect meet these requirements?
A. Create a new IAM policy that allows access to those EC2 instances only for the Security team. Apply this policy to the AWS Organizations master account.
B. Create a new tag-based IAM policy that allows access to these EC2 instances only for the Security team. Tag the instances appropriately, and apply this policy in each account.
C. Create an organizational unit under AWS Organizations. Move all the accounts into this organizational unit and use SCP to apply a whitelist policy to allow access to these EC2 instances for the Security team only.
D. Set up SAML federation for all accounts in AWS. Configure SAML so that it checks for the service API call before authenticating the user. Block SAML from authenticating API calls if anyone other than the Security team accesses these instances.
58. A company runs a public-facing application that uses a Java-based web service via a RESTful API. It is hosted on Apache Tomcat on a single server in a data center that runs consistently at 30% CPU utilization. Use of the API is expected to increase by 10 times with a new product launch. The business wants to migrate the application to AWS with no disruption, and needs it to scale to meet demand. The company has already decided to use Amazon Route 53 and CNAME records to redirect traffic. How can these requirements be met with the LEAST amount of effort?
A. Use AWS Elastic Beanstalk to deploy the Java web service and enable Auto Scaling. Then switch the application to use the new web service.
B. Lift and shift the Apache server to the cloud using AWS SMS. Then switch the application to direct web service traffic to the new instance.
C. Create a Docker image and migrate the image to Amazon ECS. Then change the application code to direct web service queries to the ECS container.
D. Modify the application to call the web service via Amazon API Gateway. Then create a new AWS Lambda Java function to run the Java web service code. After testing, change API Gateway to use the Lambda function.
59. The company Security team queries that all data uploaded into an Amazon S3 bucket must be encrypted. The encryption keys must be highly available and the company must be able to control access on a per-user basis, with different users having access to different encryption keys. Which of the following architectures will meet these requirements? (Choose two.)
A. Use Amazon S3 server-side encryption with Amazon S3-managed keys. Allow Amazon S3 to generate an AWS/S3 master key, and use IAM to control access to the data keys that are generated.
B. Use Amazon S3 server-side encryption with AWS KMS-managed keys, create multiple customer master keys, and use key policies to control access to them.
C. Use Amazon S3 server-side encryption with customer-managed keys, and use AWS CloudHSM to manage the keys. Use CloudHSM client software to control access to the keys that are generated.
D. Use Amazon S3 server-side encryption with customer-managed keys, and use two AWS CloudHSM instances configured in high-availability mode to manage the keys. Use the Cloud HSM client software to control access to the keys that are generated.
E. Use Amazon S3 server-side encryption with customer-managed keys, and use two AWS CloudHSM instances configured in high-availability mode to manage the keys. Use IAM to control access to the keys that are generated in CloudHSM.
60. A Development team is deploying new APIs as serverless applications within a company. The team is currently using the AWS Management Console to provision Amazon API Gateway, AWS Lambda, and Amazon DynamoDB resources. A Solutions Architect has been tasked with automating the future deployments of these serverless APIs. How can this be accomplished?
A. Use AWS CloudFormation with a Lambda-backed custom resource to provision API Gateway. Use the AWS::DynamoDB::Table and AWS::Lambda::Function resources to create the Amazon DynamoDB table and Lambda functions. Write a script to automate the deployment of the CloudFormation template.
B. Use the AWS Serverless Application Model to define the resources. Upload a YAML template and application files to the code repository. Use AWS CodePipeline to connect to the code repository and to create an action to build using AWS CodeBuild. Use the AWS CloudFormation deployment provider in CodePipeline to deploy the solution.
C. Use AWS CloudFormation to define the serverless application. Implement versioning on the Lambda functions and create aliases to point to the versions. When deploying, configure weights to implement shifting traffic to the newest version, and gradually update the weights as traffic moves over.
D. Commit the application code to the AWS CodeCommit code repository. Use AWS CodePipeline and connect to the CodeCommit code repository. Use AWS CodeBuild to build and deploy the Lambda functions using AWS CodeDeploy. Specify the deployment preference type in CodeDeploy to gradually shift traffic over to the new version.
61. A company needs to cost-effectively persist small data records (up to 1 KiB) for up to 30 days. The data is read rarely. When reading the data, a 5-minute delay is acceptable. Which of the following solutions achieve this goal? (Choose two.)
A. Use Amazon S3 to collect multiple records in one S3 object. Use a lifecycle configuration to move data to Amazon Glacier immediately after write. Use expedited retrievals when reading the data.
B. Write the records to Amazon Kinesis Data Firehose and configure Kinesis Data Firehose to deliver the data to Amazon S3 after 5 minutes. Set an expiration action at 30 days on the S3 bucket.
C. Use an AWS Lambda function invoked via Amazon API Gateway to collect data for 5 minutes. Write data to Amazon S3 just before the Lambda execution stops.
D. Write the records to Amazon DynamoDB configured with a Time To Live (TTL) of 30 days. Read data using the GetItem or BatchGetItem call.
E. Write the records to an Amazon ElastiCache for Redis. Configure the Redis append-only file (AOF) persistence logs to write to Amazon S3. Recover from the log if the ElastiCache instance has failed.
62. A company currently uses Amazon EBS and Amazon RDS for storage purposes. The company intends to use a pilot light approach for disaster recovery in a different AWS Region. The company has an RTO of 6 hours and an RPO of 24 hours. Which solution would achieve the requirements with MINIMAL cost?
A. Use AWS Lambda to create daily EBS and RDS snapshots, and copy them to the disaster recovery region. Use Amazon Route 53 with active-passive failover configuration. Use Amazon EC2 in an Auto Scaling group with the capacity set to 0 in the disaster recovery region.
B. Use AWS Lambda to create daily EBS and RDS snapshots, and copy them to the disaster recovery region. Use Amazon Route 53 with active-active failover configuration. Use Amazon EC2 in an Auto Scaling group configured in the same way as in the primary region.
C. Use Amazon ECS to handle long-running tasks to create daily EBS and RDS snapshots, and copy to the disaster recovery region. Use Amazon Route 53 with active-passive failover configuration. Use Amazon EC2 in an Auto Scaling group with the capacity set to 0 in the disaster recovery region.
D. Use EBS and RDS cross-region snapshot copy capability to create snapshots in the disaster recovery region. Use Amazon Route 53 with active-active failover configuration. Use Amazon EC2 in an Auto Scaling group with the capacity set to 0 in the disaster recovery region
63. A company currently uses a single 1 Gbps AWS Direct Connect connection to establish connectivity between an AWS Region and its data center. The company has five Amazon VPCs, all of which are connected to the data center using the same Direct Connect connection. The Network team is worried about the single point of failure and is interested in improving the redundancy of the connections to AWS while keeping costs to a minimum. Which solution would improve the redundancy of the connection to AWS while meeting the cost requirements?
A. Provision another 1 Gbps Direct Connect connection and create new VIFs to each of the VPCs. Configure the VIFs in a load balancing fashion using BGP.
B. Set up VPN tunnels from the data center to each VPC. Terminate each VPN tunnel at the virtual private gateway (VGW) of the respective VPC and set up BGP for route management.
C. Set up a new point-to-point Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) connection to the AWS Region that’s being used. Configure BGP to use this new circuit as passive, so that no traffic flows through this unless the AWS Direct Connect fails.
D. Create a public VIF on the Direct Connect connection and set up a VPN tunnel which will terminate on the virtual private gateway (VGW) of the respective VPC using the public VIF. Use BGP to handle the failover to the VPN connection.
64. A group of research institutions and hospitals are in a partnership to study 2 PBs of genomic data. The institute that owns the data stores it in an Amazon S3 bucket and updates it regularly. The institute would like to give all of the organizations in the partnership read access to the data. All members of the partnership are extremely cost-conscious, and the institute that owns the account with the S3 bucket is concerned about covering the costs for requests and data transfers from Amazon S3. Which solution allows for secure data sharing without causing the institute that owns the bucket to assume all the costs for S3 requests and data transfers?
A. Ensure that all organizations in the partnership have AWS accounts. In the account with the S3 bucket, create a cross-account role for each account in the partnership that allows read access to the data. Have the organizations assume and use that read role when accessing the data.
B. Ensure that all organizations in the partnership have AWS accounts. Create a bucket policy on the bucket that owns the data. The policy should allow the accounts in the partnership read access to the bucket. Enable Requester Pays on the bucket. Have the organizations use their AWS credentials when accessing the data.
C. Ensure that all organizations in the partnership have AWS accounts. Configure buckets in each of the accounts with a bucket policy that allows the institute that owns the data the ability to write to the bucket. Periodically sync the data from the institute’s account to the other organizations. Have the organizations use their AWS credentials when accessing the data using their accounts.
D. Ensure that all organizations in the partnership have AWS accounts. In the account with the S3 bucket, create a cross-account role for each account in the partnership that allows read access to the data. Enable Requester Pays on the bucket. Have the organizations assume and use that read role when accessing the data.
65. A company is migrating its on-premises build artifact server to an AWS solution. The current system consists of an Apache HTTP server that serves artifacts to clients on the local network, restricted by the perimeter firewall. The artifact consumers are largely build automation scripts that download artifacts via anonymous HTTP, which the company will be unable to modify within its migration timetable. The company decides to move the solution to Amazon S3 static website hosting. The artifact consumers will be migrated to Amazon EC2 instances located within both public and private subnets in a virtual private cloud (VPC). Which solution will permit the artifact consumers to download artifacts without modifying the existing automation scripts?
A. Create a NAT gateway within a public subnet of the VPC. Add a default route pointing to the NAT gateway into the route table associated with the subnets containing consumers. Configure the bucket policy to allow the s3:ListBucket and s3:GetObject actions using the condition IpAddress and the condition key aws:SourceIp matching the elastic IP address if the NAT gateway.
B. Create a VPC endpoint and add it to the route table associated with subnets containing consumers. Configure the bucket policy to allow s3:ListBucket and s3:GetObject actions using the condition StringEquals and the condition key aws:sourceVpce matching the identification of the VPC endpoint.
C. Create an IAM role and instance profile for Amazon EC2 and attach it to the instances that consume build artifacts. Configure the bucket policy to allow the s3:ListBucket and s3:GetObjects actions for the principal matching the IAM role created.
D. Create a VPC endpoint and add it to the route table associated with subnets containing consumers. Configure the bucket policy to allow s3:ListBucket and s3:GetObject actions using the condition IpAddress and the condition key aws:SourceIp matching the VPC CIDR block.
66. An organization has two Amazon EC2 instances:
The first is running an ordering application and an inventory application.
The second is running a queuing system.
During certain times of the year, several thousand orders are placed per second. Some orders were lost when the queuing system was down. Also, the organization’s inventory application has the incorrect quantity of products because some orders were processed twice. What should be done to ensure that the applications can handle the increasing number of orders?
A. Put the ordering and inventory applications into their own AWS Lambda functions. Have the ordering application write the messages into an Amazon SQS FIFO queue.
B. Put the ordering and inventory applications into their own Amazon ECS containers and create an Auto Scaling group for each application. Then, deploy the message queuing server in multiple Availability Zones.
C. Put the ordering and inventory applications into their own Amazon EC2 instances, and create an Auto Scaling group for each application. Use Amazon SQS standard queues for the incoming orders, and implement idempotency in the inventory application.
D. Put the ordering and inventory applications into their own Amazon EC2 instances. Write the incoming orders to an Amazon Kinesis data stream Configure AWS Lambda to poll the stream and update the inventory application.
67. An online retailer needs to regularly process large product catalogs, which are handled in batches. These are sent out to be processed by people using the Amazon Mechanical Turk service, but the retailer has asked its Solutions Architect to design a workflow orchestration system that allows it to handle multiple concurrent Mechanical Turk operations, deal with the result assessment process, and reprocess failures. Which of the following options gives the retailer the ability to interrogate the state of every workflow with the LEAST amount of implementation effort?
A. Trigger Amazon CloudWatch alarms based upon message visibility in multiple Amazon SQS queues (one queue per workflow stage) and send messages via Amazon SNS to trigger AWS Lambda functions to process the next step. Use Amazon ES and Kibana to visualize Lambda processing logs to see the workflow states.
B. Hold workflow information in an Amazon RDS instance with AWS Lambda functions polling RDS for status changes. Worker Lambda functions then process the next workflow steps. Amazon QuickSight will visualize workflow states directly out of Amazon RDS.
C. Build the workflow in AWS Step Functions, using it to orchestrate multiple concurrent workflows. The status of each workflow can be visualized in the AWS Management Console, and historical data can be written to Amazon S3 and visualized using Amazon QuickSight.
D. Use Amazon SWF to create a workflow that handles a single batch of catalog records with multiple worker tasks to extract the data, transform it, and send it through Mechanical Turk. Use Amazon ES and Kibana to visualize AWS Lambda processing logs to see the workflow states.
68. A company runs a three-tier application in AWS. Users report that the application performance can vary greatly depending on the time of day and functionality being accessed. The application includes the following components: Eight t2.large front-end web servers that serve static content and proxy dynamic content from the application tier. Four t2.large application servers. One db.m4.large Amazon RDS MySQL Multi-AZ DB instance. Operations has determined that the web and application tiers are network constrained. Which of the following should cost effective improve application performance? (Choose two.)
A. Replace web and app tiers with t2.xlarge instances
B. Use AWS Auto Scaling and m4.large instances for the web and application tiers
C. Convert the MySQL RDS instance to a self-managed MySQL cluster on Amazon EC2
D. Create an Amazon CloudFront distribution to cache content
E. Increase the size of the Amazon RDS instance to db.m4.xlarge
69. A company’s application is increasingly popular and experiencing latency because of high volume reads on the database server.
The service has the following properties:
– A highly available REST API hosted in one region using Application Load Balancer (ALB) with auto scaling.
– A MySQL database hosted on an Amazon EC2 instance in a single Availability Zone.
The company wants to reduce latency, increase in-region database read performance, and have multi-region disaster recovery capabilities that can perform a live recovery automatically without any data or performance loss (HA/DR). Which deployment strategy will meet these requirements?
A. Use AWS CloudFormation StackSets to deploy the API layer in two regions. Migrate the database to an Amazon Aurora with MySQL database cluster with multiple read replicas in one region and a read replica in a different region than the source database cluster. Use Amazon Route 53 health checks to trigger a DNS failover to the standby region if the health checks to the primary load balancer fail. In the event of Route 53 failover, promote the cross-region database replica to be the master and build out new read replicas in the standby region.
B. Use Amazon ElastiCache for Redis Multi-AZ with an automatic failover to cache the database read queries. Use AWS OpsWorks to deploy the API layer, cache layer, and existing database layer in two regions. In the event of failure, use Amazon Route 53 health checks on the database to trigger a DNS failover to the standby region if the health checks in the primary region fail. Back up the MySQL database frequently, and in the event of a failure in an active region, copy the backup to the standby region and restore the standby database.
C. Use AWS CloudFormation StackSets to deploy the API layer in two regions. Add the database to an Auto Scaling group. Add a read replica to the database in the second region. Use Amazon Route 53 health checks in the primary region fail. Promote the cross-region database replica to be the master and build out new read replicas in the standby region.
D. Use Amazon ElastiCache for Redis Multi-AZ with an automatic failover to cache the database read queries. Use AWS OpsWorks to deploy the API layer, cache layer, and existing database layer in two regions. Use Amazon Route 53 health checks on the ALB to trigger a DNS failover to the standby region if the health checks in the primary region fail. Back up the MySQL database frequently, and in the event of a failure in an active region, copy the backup to the standby region and restore the standby database.
70. An on-premises application will be migrated to the cloud. The application consists of a single Elasticsearch virtual machine with data source feeds from local systems that will not be migrated, and a Java web application on Apache Tomcat running on three virtual machines. The Elasticsearch server currently uses 1 TB of storage out of 16 TB available storage, and the web application is updated every 4 months. Multiple users access the web application from the Internet. There is a 10Gbit AWS Direct Connect connection established, and the application can be migrated over a schedules 48-hour change window. Which strategy will have the LEAST impact on the Operations staff after the migration?
A. Create an Elasticsearch server on Amazon EC2 right-sized with 2 TB of Amazon EBS and a public AWS Elastic Beanstalk environment for the web application. Pause the data sources, export the Elasticsearch index from on premises, and import into the EC2 Elasticsearch server. Move data source feeds to the new Elasticsearch server and move users to the web application.
B. Create an Amazon ES cluster for Elasticsearch and a public AWS Elastic Beanstalk environment for the web application. Use AWS DMS to replicate Elasticsearch data. When replication has finished, move data source feeds to the new Amazon ES cluster endpoint and move users to the new web application.
C. Use the AWS SMS to replicate the virtual machines into AWS. When the migration is complete, pause the data source feeds and start the migrated Elasticsearch and web application instances. Place the web application instances behind a public Elastic Load Balancer. Move the data source feeds to the new Elasticsearch server and move users to the new web Application Load Balancer.
D. Create an Amazon ES cluster for Elasticsearch and a public AWS Elastic Beanstalk environment for the web application. Pause the data source feeds, export the Elasticsearch index from on premises, and import into the Amazon ES cluster. Move the data source feeds to the new Amazon ES cluster endpoint and move users to the new web application.
71. A company has an Amazon EC2 deployment that has the following architecture:
– An application tier that contains 8 m4.xlarge instances
– A Classic Load Balancer
– Amazon S3 as a persistent data store
After one of the EC2 instances fails, users report very slow processing of their requests. A Solutions Architect must recommend design changes to maximize system reliability. The solution must minimize costs. What should the Solution Architect recommend?
A. Migrate the existing EC2 instances to a serverless deployment using AWS Lambda functions
B. Change the Classic Load Balancer to an Application Load Balancer
C. Replace the application tier with m4.large instances in an Auto Scaling group
D. Replace the application tier with 4 m4.2xlarge instances
72. A company wants to move a web application to AWS. The application stores session information locally on each web server, which will make auto scaling difficult. As part of the migration, the application will be rewritten to decouple the session data from the web servers. The company requires low latency, scalability, and availability. Which service will meet the requirements for storing the session information in the MOST cost effective way?
A. Amazon ElastiCache with the Memcached engine
B. Amazon S3
C. Amazon RDS MySQL
D. Amazon ElastiCache with the Redis engine
73. A company that provides wireless services needs a solution to store and analyze log files about user activities. Currently, log files are delivered daily to Amazon Linux on Amazon EC2 instance. A batch script is run once a day to aggregate data used for analysis by a third-party tool. The data pushed to the third-party tool is used to generate a visualization for end users. The batch script is cumbersome to maintain, and it takes several hours to deliver the ever-increasing data volumes to the third-party tool. The company wants to lower costs, and is open to considering a new tool that minimizes development effort and lowers administrative overhead. The company wants to build a more agile solution that can store and perform the analysis in near-real time, with minimal overhead. The solution needs to be cost effective and scalable to meet the company’s end-user base growth. Which solution meets the company’s requirements?
A. Develop a Python script to failure the data from Amazon EC2 in real time and store the data in Amazon S3. Use a copy command to copy data from Amazon S3 to Amazon Redshift. Connect a business intelligence tool running on Amazon EC2 to Amazon Redshift and create the visualizations.
B. Use an Amazon Kinesis agent running on an EC2 instance in an Auto Scaling group to collect and send the data to an Amazon Kinesis Data Firehose delivery stream. The Kinesis Data Firehose delivery stream will deliver the data directly to Amazon ES. Use Kibana to visualize the data.
C. Use an in-memory caching application running on an Amazon EBS-optimized EC2 instance to capture the log data in near real-time. Install an Amazon ES cluster on the same EC2 instance to store the log files as they are delivered to Amazon EC2 in near real-time. Install a Kibana plugin to create the visualizations.
D. Use an Amazon Kinesis agent running on an EC2 instance to collect and send the data to an Amazon Kinesis Data Firehose delivery stream. The Kinesis Data Firehose delivery stream will deliver the data to Amazon S3. Use an AWS Lambda function to deliver the data from Amazon S3 to Amazon ES. Use Kibana to visualize the data
74. A company is migrating to the cloud. It wants to evaluate the configurations of virtual machines in its existing data center environment to ensure that it can size new Amazon EC2 instances accurately. The company wants to collect metrics, such as CPU, memory, and disk utilization, and it needs an inventory of what processes are running on each instance. The company would also like to monitor network connections to map communications between servers. Which would enable the collection of this data MOST cost effectively?
A. Use AWS Application Discovery Service and deploy the data collection agent to each virtual machine in the data center.
B. Configure the Amazon CloudWatch agent on all servers within the local environment and publish metrics to Amazon CloudWatch Logs.
C. Use AWS Application Discovery Service and enable agentless discovery in the existing virtualization environment.
D. Enable AWS Application Discovery Service in the AWS Management Console and configure the corporate firewall to allow scans over a VPN.
75. A company has a standard three-tier architecture using two Availability Zones. During the company’s off season, users report that the website is not working. The Solutions Architect finds that no changes have been made to the environment recently, the website is reachable, and it is possible to log in. However, when the Solutions Architect selects the “find a store near you” function, the maps provided on the site by a third-party RESTful API call do not work about 50% of the time after refreshing the page. The outbound API calls are made through Amazon EC2 NAT instances. What is the MOST likely reason for this failure and how can it be mitigated in the future?
A. The network ACL for one subnet is blocking outbound web traffic. Open the network ACL and prevent administration from making future changes through IAM.
B. The fault is in the third-party environment. Contact the third party that provides the maps and request a fix that will provide better uptime.
C. One NAT instance has become overloaded. Replace both EC2 NAT instances with a larger-sized instance and make sure to account for growth when making the new instance size.
D. One of the NAT instances failed. Recommend replacing the EC2 NAT instances with a NAT gateway.
76. A company has released a new version of a website to target an audience in Asia and South America. The website’s media assets are hosted on Amazon S3 and have an Amazon CloudFront distribution to improve end-user performance. However, users are having a poor login experience; the authentication service is only available in the us-east-1 AWS Region. How can the Solutions Architect improve the login experience and maintain high security and performance with minimal management overhead?
A. Replicate the setup in each new geography and use Amazon Route 53 geo-based routing to route traffic to the AWS Region closest to the users.
B. Use an Amazon Route 53 weighted routing policy to route traffic to the CloudFront distribution. Use CloudFront cached HTTP methods to improve the user login experience.
C. Use Amazon Lambda@Edge attached to the CloudFront viewer request trigger to authenticate and authorize users by maintaining a secure cookie token with a session expiry to improve the user experience in multiple geographies.
D. Replicate the setup in each geography and use Network Load Balancers to route traffic to the authentication service running in the closest region to users.
77. A company has asked a Solutions Architect to design a secure content management solution that can be accessed by API calls by external customer applications. The company requires that a customer administrator must be able to submit an API call and roll back changes to existing files sent to the content management solution, as needed. What is the MOST secure deployment design that meets all solution requirements?
A. Use Amazon S3 for object storage with versioning and bucket access logging enabled, and an IAM role and access policy for each customer application. Encrypt objects using SSE-KMS. Develop the content management application to use a separate AWS KMS key for each customer.
B. Use Amazon WorkDocs for object storage. Leverage WorkDocs encryption, user access management, and version control. Use AWS CloudTrail to log all SDK actions and create reports of hourly access by using the Amazon CloudWatch dashboard. Enable a revert function in the SDK based on a static Amazon S3 webpage that shows the output of the CloudWatch dashboard.
C. Use Amazon EFS for object storage, using encryption at rest for the Amazon EFS volume and a customer managed key stored in AWS KMS. Use IAM roles and Amazon EFS access policies to specify separate encryption keys for each customer application. Deploy the content management application to store all new versions as new files in Amazon EFS and use a control API to revert a specific file to a previous version.
D. Use Amazon S3 for object storage with versioning and enable S3 bucket access logging. Use an IAM role and access policy for each customer application. Encrypt objects using client-side encryption, and distribute an encryption key to all customers when accessing the content management application.
78. A company is implementing a multi-account strategy; however, the Management team has expressed concerns that services like DNS may become overly complex. The company needs a solution that allows private DNS to be shared among virtual private clouds (VPCs) in different accounts. The company will have approximately 50 accounts in total. What solution would create the LEAST complex DNS architecture and ensure that each VPC can resolve all AWS resources?
A. Create a shared services VPC in a central account, and create a VPC peering connection from the shared services VPC to each of the VPCs in the other accounts. Within Amazon Route 53, create a privately hosted zone in the shared services VPC and resource record sets for the domain and subdomains. Programmatically associate other VPCs with the hosted zone.
B. Create a VPC peering connection among the VPCs in all accounts. Set the VPC attributes enableDnsHostnames and enableDnsSupport to “true” for each VPC. Create an Amazon Route 53 private zone for each VPC. Create resource record sets for the domain and subdomains. Programmatically associate the hosted zones in each VPC with the other VPCs.
C. Create a shared services VPC in a central account. Create a VPC peering connection from the VPCs in other accounts to the shared services VPC. Create an Amazon Route 53 privately hosted zone in the shared services VPC with resource record sets for the domain and subdomains. Allow UDP and TCP port 53 over the VPC peering connections.
D. Set the VPC attributes enableDnsHostnames and enableDnsSupport to “false” in every VPC. Create an AWS Direct Connect connection with a private virtual interface. Allow UDP and TCP port 53 over the virtual interface. Use the on-premises DNS servers to resolve the IP addresses in each VPC on AWS.
79. A media company has a 30-TB repository of digital news videos. These videos are stored on tape in an on-premises tape library and referenced by a Media Asset Management (MAM) system. The company wants to enrich the metadata for these videos in an automated fashion and put them into a searchable catalog by using a MAM feature. The company must be able to search based on information in the video, such as objects, scenery items, or people’s faces. A catalog is available that contains faces of people who have appeared in the videos that include an image of each person. The company would like to migrate these videos to AWS. The company has a high-speed AWS Direct Connect connection with AWS and would like to move the MAM solution video content directly from its current file system. How can these requirements be met by using the LEAST amount of ongoing management overhead and causing MINIMAL disruption to the existing system?
C. Configure a video ingestion stream by using Amazon Kinesis Video Streams. Use the catalog of faces to build a collection in Amazon Rekognition. Stream the videos from the MAM solution into Kinesis Video Streams. Configure Amazon Rekognition to process the streamed videos. Then, use a stream consumer to retrieve the required metadata, and push the metadata into the MAM solution. Configure the stream to store the videos in Amazon S3.
D. Set up an Amazon EC2 instance that runs the OpenCV libraries. Copy the videos, images, and face catalog from the on-premises library into an Amazon EBS volume mounted on this EC2 instance. Process the videos to retrieve the required metadata, and push the metadata into the MAM solution while also copying the video files to an Amazon S3 bucket.
80. A company has developed a web application that runs on Amazon EC2 instances in one AWS Region. The company has taken on new business in other countries and must deploy its application into others to meet low-latency requirements for its users. The regions can be segregated, and an application running in one region does not need to communicate with instances in other regions. How should the company’s Solutions Architect automate the deployment of the application so that it can be MOST efficiently deployed into multiple regions?
A. Write a bash script that uses the AWS CLI to query the current state in one region and output a JSON representation. Pass the JSON representation to the AWS CLI, specifying the –region parameter to deploy the application to other regions.
B. Write a bash script that uses the AWS CLI to query the current state in one region and output an AWS CloudFormation template. Create a CloudFormation stack from the template by using the AWS CLI, specifying the –region parameter to deploy the application to other regions.
C. Write a CloudFormation template describing the application’s infrastructure in the resources section. Create a CloudFormation stack from the template by using the AWS CLI, specify multiple regions using the –regions parameter to deploy the application.
D. Write a CloudFormation template describing the application’s infrastructure in the Resources section. Use a CloudFormation stack set from an administrator account to launch stack instances that deploy the application to other regions.