AWS Certified DevOps Engineer Professional Practice Exam Part 2

AWS Certified DevOps Professional Practice Exam Part 2

AWS Certified DevOps Engineer Professional Practice Exam Part 2

Notes: Hi all, AWS Certified DevOps Engineer Professional Practice Exam will familiarize you with types of questions you may encounter on the certification exam and help you determine your readiness or if you need more preparation and/or experience. Successful completion of the practice exam does not guarantee you will pass the certification exam as the actual exam is longer and covers a wider range of topics. We highly recommend you should take AWS Certified Certified DevOps Engineer Professional Guarantee Part because it include real questions and highlighted answers are collected in our exam. It will help you pass exam in easier way.

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Part 3: https://www.awslagi.com/aws-certified-devops-professional-dop-c01-part-3-quiz

60. A Development team is working on a serverless application in AWS. To quickly identify and remediate potential production issues, the team decides to roll out changes to a small number of users as a test before the full release. The DevOps Engineer must develop a solution to minimize downtime and impact. Which of the following solutions should be used to meet the requirements? (Select TWO.)

A. Create an Application Load Balancer with two target groups. Set up the Application Load Balancer for Amazon API Gateway private integration. Associate one target group to the current version and the other target group to the new version. Configure API Gateway to route 10% of incoming traffic to the new version. As the new version becomes stable, configure API Gateway to send all traffic to the new version and detach the old version from the load balancer.
B. Create an alias for an AWS Lambda function pointing to both the current and new versions. Configure the alias to route 10% of incoming traffic to the new version. As the new version is considered stable, update the alias to route all traffic to the new version.
C. Create a rollover record set in AWS Route 53 pointing to the AWS Lambda endpoints for the old and new versions. Configure Route 53 to route 10% of incoming traffic to the new version. As the new version becomes stable, update the DNS record to route all traffic to the new version.
D. Create an ELB Network Load Balancer with two target groups. Set up the Network Load Balancer for Amazon API Gateway private integration Associate one target group with the current version and the other target group with the new version. Configure the load balancer to route 10% of incoming traffic to the new version. As the new version becomes stable, detach the old version from the load balancer.
E. In Amazon API Gateway, create a canary release deployment by adding canary settings to the stage of a regular deployment. Configure API Gateway to route 10% of the incoming traffic to the canary release. As the canary release is considered stable, promote it to a production release

Answer: B E

61. A company wants to implement a Cl/CD pipeline for an application that is deployed on AWS. The company also has a source-code analysis tool hosted on premises that checks for security flaws. The tool has not yet been migrated to AWS and can be accessed only on premises. The company wants to run checks against the source code as part of the pipeline before the code is compiled. The checks take anywhere from minutes to an hour to complete. How can a DevOps Engineer meet these requirements’?

A. Use AWS CodePipeline to create a pipeline. Add an action to the pipeline to invoke an AWS Lambda function after the source stage. Have the Lambda function invoke the source-code analysis tool on premises against the source input from CodePipeline. The function then waits for the execution to complete and places the output in a specified Amazon S3 location.
B. Use AWS CodePipeline to create a pipeline, then create a custom action type. Create a job worker for the custom action that runs on hardware hosted on premises. The job worker handles running security checks with the on-premises code analysis tool and then returns the job results to CodePipeline. Have the pipeline invoke the custom action after the source stage.
C. Use AWS CodePipeline to create a pipeline. Add a step after the source stage to make an HTTPS request to the on-premises hosted web service that invokes a test with the source code analysis tool. When the analysis is complete, the web service sends the results back by putting the results in an Amazon S3 output location provided by CodePipeline.
D. Use AWS CodePipeline to create a pipeline. Create a shell script that copies the input source code to a location on premises. Invoke the source code analysis tool and return the results to CodePipeline. Invoke the shell script by adding a custom script action after the source stage.

Answer: B

62.A company is adopting AWS CodeDeploy to automate its application deployments for a JavaApache Tomcat application with an Apache webserver. The Development team started with a proof of concept, created a deployment group for a developer environment, and performed functional tests within the application. After completion, the team will create additional deployment groups for staging and production The current log level is configured within the Apache settings, but the team wants to change this configuration dynamically when the deployment occurs, so that they can set different log level configurations depending on the deployment group without having a different application revision for each group. How can these requirements be met with the LEAST management overhead and without requiring different script versions for each deployment group?

A. Tag the Amazon EC2 instances depending on the deployment group. Then place a script into the application revision that calls the metadata service and the EC2 API to identify which deployment group the instance is part of. Use this information to configure the log level settings. Reference the script as part of the AfterInstall lifecycle hook in the appspec yml file.
B. Create a script that uses the CodeDeploy environment variable DEPLOYMENT_GROUP_NAME to identify which deployment group the instances is part of. Use this information to configure the log level settings. Reference this script as part of the Beforelnstall lifecycle hook in the appspec.yml file
C. Create a CodeDeploy custom environment variable for each environment. Then place a script into the application revision that checks this environment variable to identify which deployment group the instance is part of. Use this information to configure the log level settings. Reference this script as part of the ValidateService lifecycle hook in the appspec yml file.
D. Create a script that uses the CodeDeploy environment variable DEPLOYMENT_GROUP_ID to identify which deployment group the instance is part of to configure the log level settings. Reference this script as part of the Install lifecycle hook in the appspec yml file

Answer: B

63. A company has an application that has predictable peak traffic times. The company wants the application instances to scale up only during the peak times. The application stores state in Amazon DynamoDB. The application environment uses a standard Node.js application stack and custom Chef recipes stored in a private Git repository. Which solution is MOST cost-effective and requires the LEAST amount of management overhead when performing rolling updates of the application environment?

A. Create a custom AMI with the Node.js environment and application stack using Chef recipes. Use the AMI in an Auto Scaling group and set up scheduled scaling for the required times, then set up an Amazon EC2 IAM role that provides permission to access DynamoDB.
B. Create a Docker file that uses the Chef recipes for the application environment based on an official Node.js Docker image. Create an Amazon ECS cluster and a service for the application environment, then create a task based on this Docker image. Use scheduled scaling to scale the containers at the appropriate times and attach a task-level IAM role that provides permission to access DynamoDB.
C. Configure AWS OpsWorks stacks and use custom Chef cookbooks. Add the Git repository information where the custom recipes are stored, and add a layer in OpsWorks for the Node.js application server. Then configure the custom recipe to deploy the application in the deploy step. Configure time-based instances and attach an Amazon EC2 IAM role that provides permission to access DynamoDB.
D. Configure AWS OpsWorks stacks and push the custom recipes to an Amazon S3 bucket and configure custom recipes to point to the S3 bucket. Then add an application layer type for a standard Node.js application server and configure the custom recipe to deploy the application in the deploy step from the S3 bucket. Configure time-based instances and attach an Amazon EC2 IAM role that provides permission to access DynamoDB.

Answer: C

64. The Development team at an online retailer has moved to Business support and want to take advantage of the AWS Health Dashboard and the AWS Health API to automate remediation actions for issues with the health of AWS resources. The first use case is to respond to AWS detecting an IAM access key that is listed on a public code repository site. The automated response will be to delete the IAM access key and send a notification to the Security team. How should this be achieved?

A. Create an AWS Lambda function to delete the IAM access key. Send AWS CloudTrail logs to AWS CloudWatch logs. Create a CloudWatch Logs metric filter for the AWS_RISK_CREDENTIALS_EXPOSED event with two actions: first, run the Lambda function; second, use Amazon SNS to send a notification to the Security team.
B. Create an AWS Lambda function to delete the IAM access key. Create an AWS Config rule for changes to aws.health and the AWS_RISK_CREDENTIALS_EXPOSED event with two actions: first, run the Lambda function; second, use Amazon SNS to send a notification to the Security team.
C. Use AWS Step Functions to create a function to delete the IAM access key, and then use Amazon SNS to send a notification to the Security team. Create an AWS Personal Health Dashboard rule for the AWS_RISK_CREDENTIALS_EXPOSED event; set the target of the Personal Health Dashboard rule to Step Functions.
D. Use AWS Step Functions to create a function to delete the IAM access key, and then use Amazon SNS to send a notification to the Security team. Create an Amazon CloudWatch Events rule with an aws.health event source and the AWS_RISK_CREDENTIALS_EXPOSED event, set the target of the CloudWatch Events rule to Step Functions.

Answer: D

65. The Security team depends on AWS CloudTrail to detect sensitive security issues in the company’s AWS account. The DevOps Engineer needs a solution to auto-remediate CloudTrail being turned off in an AWS account. What solution ensures the LEAST amount of downtime for the CloudTrail log deliveries?

A. Create an Amazon CloudWatch Events rule for the CloudTrail StopLogging event. Create an AWS Lambda function that uses the AWS SDK to call StartLogging on the ARN of the resource in which StopLogging was called. Add the Lambda function ARN as a target to the CloudWatch Events rule.
B. Deploy the AWS-managed CloudTrail-enabled AWS Config rule, set with a periodic interval of 1 hour. Create an Amazon CloudWatch Events rule for AWS Config rules compliance change. Create an AWS Lambda function that uses the AWS SDK to call StartLogging on the ARN of the resource in which StopLogging was called. Add the Lambda function ARN as a target to the CloudWatch Events rule.
C. Create an Amazon CloudWatch Events rule for a scheduled event every 5 minutes. Create an AWS Lambda function that uses the AWS SDK to call StartLogging on an CloudTrail trail in the AWS account. Add the Lambda function ARN as a target to the CloudWatch Events rule.
D. Launch a t2.nano instance with a script running every 5 minutes that uses the AWS SDK to query CloudTrail in the current account. If the CloudTrail trail is disabled, have the script re-enable the trail.

Answer: A

66. A DevOps Engineer has been asked by the Security team to ensure that AWS CloudTrail files are not tampered with after being created. Currently, there is a process with multiple trails, using AWS IAM to restrict access to specific trails. The Security team wants to ensure they can trace the integrity of each file and make sure there has been no tampering. Which option will require the LEAST effort to implement and ensure the legitimacy of the file while allowing the Security team to prove the authenticity of the logs?

A. Create an Amazon CloudWatch Events rule that triggers an AWS Lambda function when a new file is delivered. Configure the Lambda function to perform an MD5 hash check on the file, store the name and location of the file, and post the returned hash to an Amazon DynamoDB table. The Security team can use the values stored in DynamoDB to verify the file authenticity.
B. Enable the CloudTrail file integrity feature on an Amazon S3 bucket. Create an IAM policy that grants the Security team access to the file integrity logs stored in the S3 bucket.
C. Enable the CloudTrail file integrity feature on the trail. Use the digest file created by CloudTrail to verify the integrity of the delivered CloudTrail files.
D. Create an AWS Lambda function that is triggered each time a new file is delivered to the CloudTrail bucket. Configure the Lambda function to execute an MD5 hash check on the file, and store the result on a tag in an Amazon S3 object. The Security team can use the information on the tag to verify the integrity of the file.

Answer: C

67. A company is building a web and mobile application that uses a serverless architecture powered by AWS Lambda and Amazon API Gateway. The company wants to fully automate the backend Lambda deployment based on code that is pushed to the appropriate environment branch in an AWS CodeCommit repository. The deployment must have the following: Separate environment pipelines for testing and production. Automatic deployment that occurs for test environments only. Which steps should be taken to meet these requirements?

A. Configure a new AWS CodePipeline service. Create a CodeCommit repository for each environment. Set up CodePipeline to retrieve the source code from the appropriate repository. Set up a deployment step to deploy the Lambda functions with AWS CloudFormation.
B. Create two AWS CodePipeline configurations for test and production environments. Configure the production pipeline to have a manual approval step. Create a CodeCommit repository for each environment. Set up each CodePipeline to retrieve the source code from the appropriate repository. Set up the deployment step to deploy the Lambda functions with AWS CloudFormation.
C. Create two AWS CodePipeline configurations for test and production environments. Configure the production pipeline to have a manual approval step. Create one CodeCommit repository with a branch for each environment. Set up each CodePipeline to retrieve the source code from the appropriate branch in the repository. Set up the deployment step to deploy the Lambda functions with AWS CloudFormation.
D. Create an AWS CodeBuild configuration for test and production environments. Configure the production pipeline to have a manual approval step. Create one CodeCommit repository with a branch for each environment. Push the Lambda function code to an Amazon S3 bucket. Set up the deployment step to deploy the Lambda functions from the S3 bucket.

Answer: C

68. A company is using AWS for an application. The Development team must automate its deployments. The team has set up an AWS CodePipeline to deploy the application to Amazon EC2 instances by using AWS CodeDeploy after it has been built using the AWS CodeBuild service. The team would like to add automated testing to the pipeline to confirm that the application is healthy before deploying it to the next stage of the pipeline using the same code. The team requires a manual approval action before the application is deployed, even if the test is successful. The testing and approval must be accomplished at the lowest costs, using the simplest management solution. Which solution will meet these requirements?

A. Add a manual approval action after the last deploy action of the pipeline. Use Amazon SNS to inform the team of the stage being triggered. Next, add a test action using CodeBuild to do the required tests. At the end of the pipeline, add a deploy action to deploy the application to the next stage.
B. Add a test action after the last deploy action of the pipeline. Configure the action to use CodeBuild to perform the required tests. If these tests are successful, mark the action as successful. Add a manual approval action that uses Amazon SNS to notify the team, and add a deploy action to deploy the application to the next stage.
C. Create a new pipeline that uses a source action that gets the code from the same repository as the first pipeline. Add a deploy action to deploy the code to a test environment. Use a test action using AWS Lambda to test the deployment. Add a manual approval action by using Amazon SNS to notify the team, and add a deploy action to deploy the application to the next stage.
D. Add a test action after the last deployment action. Use a Jenkins server on Amazon EC2 to do the required tests and mark the action as successful if the tests pass. Create a manual approval action that uses Amazon SQS to notify the team and add a deploy action to deploy the application to the next stage

Answer: B

69. A company is building a solution for storing files containing Personally Identifiable Information (PII) on AWS. Requirements state: All data must be encrypted at rest and in transit. Al data must be replicated in at least two locations that are at least 500 miles apart. Which solution meets these requirements?

A. Create primary and secondary Amazon S3 buckets in two separate Availability Zones that are at least 500 miles apart. Use a bucket policy to enforce access to the buckets only through HTTPS. Use a bucket policy to enforce Amazon S3 SSE-C on all objects uploaded to the bucket. Configure cross-region replication between the two buckets.
B. Create primary and secondary Amazon S3 buckets in two separate AWS Regions that are at least 500 miles apart. Use a bucket policy to enforce access to the buckets only through HTTPS. Use a bucket policy to enforce S3-Managed Keys (SSE-S3) on all objects uploaded to the bucket. Configure cross-region replication between the two buckets
C. Create primary and secondary Amazon S3 buckets in two separate AWS Regions that are at least 500 miles apart. Use an IAM role to enforce access to the buckets only through HTTPS. Use a bucket policy to enforce Amazon S3-Managed Keys (SSE-S3) on all objects uploaded to the bucket. Configure cross-region replication between the two buckets.
D. Create primary and secondary Amazon S3 buckets in two separate Availability Zones that are at least 500 miles apart. Use a bucket policy to enforce access to the buckets only through HTTPS. Use a bucket policy to enforce AWS KMS encryption on all objects uploaded to the bucket. Configure cross-region replication between the two buckets. Create a KMS Customer Master Key (CMK) in the primary region for encrypting objects.

Answer: B

70. A company is using AWS CodeDeploy to automate software deployment. The deployment must meet these requirements: A number of instances must be available to serve traffic during the deployment. Traffic must be balanced across those instances, and the instances must automatically heal in the event of failure. A new fleet of instances must be launched for deploying a new revision automatically, with no manual provisioning. Traffic must be rerouted to the new environment to half of the new instances at a time. The deployment should succeed if traffic is rerouted to at least half of the instances; otherwise, it should fail. Before routing traffic to the new fleet of instances, the temporary files generated during the deployment process must be deleted. At the end of a successful deployment, the original instances in the deployment group must be deleted immediately to reduce costs. How can a DevOps Engineer meet these requirements?

A. Use an Application Load Balancer and an in-place deployment. Associate the Auto Scaling group with the deployment group. Use the Automatically copy Auto Scaling group option, and use CodeDeployDefault.OneAtAtime as the deployment configuration. Instruct AWS CodeDeploy to terminate the original instances in the deployment group, and use the AllowTraffic hook within appspec.yml to delete the temporary files.
B. Use an Application Load Balancer and a blue/green deployment. Associate the Auto Scaling group and the Application Load Balancer target group with the deployment group. Use the Automatically copy Auto Scaling group option, create a custom deployment configuration with minimum healthy hosts defined as 50%, and assign the configuration to the deployment group. Instruct AWS CodeDeploy to terminate the original instances in the deployment group, and use the BeforeBlock Traffic hook within appspec.yml to delete the temporary files.
C. Use an Application Load Balancer and a blue/green deployment. Associate the Auto Scaling group and the Application Load Balancer target group with the deployment group. Use the Automatically copy Auto Scaling group option, and use CodeDeployDefault HalfAtAtime as the deployment configuration. Instruct AWS CodeDeploy to terminate the original instances in the deployment group, and use the BeforeAllowTraffic hook within appspec.yml to delete the temporary files.
D. Use an Application Load Balancer and an in-place deployment. Associate the Auto Scaling group and Application Load Balancer target group with the deployment group. Use the Automatically copy Auto Scaling group option, and use CodeDeployDefault AllatOnce as a deployment configuration. Instruct AWS CodeDeploy to terminate the original instances in the deployment group, and use the BlockTraffic hook within appspec.yml to delete the temporary files.

Answer: C

71. A DevOps Engineer is working with an application deployed to 12 Amazon EC2 instances across 3 Availability Zones. New instances can be started from an AMI image. On a typical day, each EC2 instance has 30% utilization during business hours and 10% utilization after business hours. The CPU utilization has an immediate spike in the first few minutes of business hours. Other increases in CPU utilization rise gradually. The Engineer has been asked to reduce costs while retaining the same or higher reliability. Which solution meets these requirements?

A. Create two Amazon CloudWatch Events rules with schedules before and after business hours begin and end. Create two AWS Lambda functions, one invoked by each rule. The first function should stop nine instances after business hours end, the second function should restart the nine instances before the business day begins.
B. Create an Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling group using the AMI image, with a scaling action based on the Auto Scaling group’s CPU Utilization average with a target of 75%. Create a scheduled action for the group to adjust the minimum number of instances to three after business hours end and reset to six before business hours begin.
C. Create two Amazon CloudWatch Events rules with schedules before and after business hours begin and end. Create an AWS CloudFormation stack, which creates an EC2 Auto Scaling group, with a parameter for the number of instances. Invoke the stack from each rule, passing a parameter value of three in the morning, and six in the evening.
D. Create an EC2 Auto Scaling group using the AMI image, with a scaling action based on the Auto Scaling group’s CPU Utilization average with a target of 75%. Create a scheduled action to terminate nine instances each evening after the close of business.

Answer: B

72. A DevOps Engineer must improve the monitoring of a Finance team payments microservice that handles transactions for an e-commerce platform. The microservice runs on multiple Amazon EC2 instances. The Finance team would like to know the number of payments per minute, and the team would like to be notified when this metric falls below a specified threshold. How can this be cost-effectively automated?

A. Have the Development team log successful transactions to an application log. Set up Logstash on each instance, which sends logs to an Amazon ES cluster. Create a Kibana dashboard for the Finance team that graphs the metric.
B. Have the Development team post the number of successful transactions to Amazon CloudWatch as a custom metric. Create a CloudWatch alarm when the threshold is breached, and use Amazon SNS to notify the Finance team.
C. Have the Development team log successful transactions to an application log. On each instance, set up the Amazon CloudWatch Logs agent to send application logs to CloudWatch Logs. Use an EC2 instance to monitor a metric filter, and send notifications to the Finance team.
D. Have the Development team log successful transactions to an application log. Set up the Amazon CloudWatch agent on each instance. Create a CloudWatch alarm when the threshold is breached, and use Amazon SNS to notify the Finance team.

Answer: B

73. A company is migrating an application to AWS that runs on a single Amazon EC2 instance. Because of licensing limitations, the application does not support horizontal scaling. The application will be using Amazon Aurora for its database. How can the DevOps Engineer architect automated healing to automatically recover from EC2 and Aurora failures, in addition to recovering across Availability Zones (AZs), in the MOST cost-effective manner?

A. Create an EC2 Auto Scaling group with a minimum and maximum instance count of 1, and have it span across AZs. Use a single-node Aurora instance.
B. Create an EC2 instance and enable instance recovery. Create an Aurora database with a read replica in a second AZ, and promote it to a primary database instance if the primary database instance fails.
C. Create an Amazon CloudWatch Events rule to trigger an AWS Lambda function to start a new EC2 instance in an available AZ when the instance status reaches a failure state. Create an Aurora database with a read replica in a second AZ, and promote it to a primary database instance when the primary database instance fails.
D. Assign an Elastic IP address on the instance. Create a second EC2 instance in a second AZ. Create an Amazon CloudWatch Events rule to trigger an AWS Lambda function to move the Elastic IP address to the second instance when the first instance fails. Use a single-node Aurora instance

Answer: C

74. An Application team has three environments for their application: development, pre-production, and production. The team recently adopted AWS CodePipeline. However, the team has had several deployments of misconfigured or nonfunctional development code into the production environment, resulting in user disruption and downtime. The DevOps Engineer must review the pipeline and add steps to identify problems with the application before it is deployed. What should the Engineer do to identify functional issues during the deployment process? (Choose two.)

A. Use Amazon Inspector to add a test action to the pipeline. Use the Amazon Inspector Runtime Behavior Analysis Inspector rules package to check that the deployed code complies with company security standards before deploying it to production.
B. Using AWS CodeBuild to add a test action to the pipeline to replicate common user activities and ensure that the results are as expected before progressing to production deployment.
C. Create an AWS CodeDeploy action in the pipeline with a deployment configuration that automatically deploys the application code to a limited number of instances. The action then pauses the deployment so that the QA team can review the application functionality. When the review is complete, CodeDeploy resumes and deploys the application to the remaining production Amazon EC2 instances.
D. After the deployment process is complete, run a testing activity on an Amazon EC2 instance in a different region that accesses the application to simulate user behavior if unexpected results occur, the testing activity sends a warning to an Amazon SNS topic. Subscribe to the topic to get updates.
E. Add an AWS CodeDeploy action in the pipeline to deploy the latest version of the development code to pre-production. Add a manual approval action in the pipeline so that the QA team can test and confirm the expected functionality. After the manual approval action, add a second CodeDeploy action that deploys the approved code to the production environment.

Answer: B E

75. A DevOps Engineer is responsible for the deployment of a PHP application. The Engineer is working in a hybrid deployment, with the application running on both on-premises servers and Amazon EC2 instances. The application needs access to a database containing highly confidential information. Application instances need access to database credentials, which must be encrypted at rest and in transit before reaching the instances. How should the Engineer automate the deployment process while also meeting the security requirements?

A. Use AWS Elastic Beanstalk with a PHP platform configuration to deploy application packages to the instances. Store database credentials on AWS Systems Manager Parameter Store using the Secure String data type. Define an IAM role for Amazon EC2 allowing access, and decrypt only the database credentials. Associate this role to all the instances.
B. Use AWS CodeDeploy to deploy application packages to the instances. Store database credentials on AWS Systems Manager Parameter Store using the Secure String data type. Define an IAM policy for allowing access, and decrypt only the database credentials. Attach the IAM policy to the role associated to the instance profile for CodeDeploy-managed instances, and to the role used for on-premises instances registration on CodeDeploy.
C. Use AWS CodeDeploy to deploy application packages to the instances. Store database credentials on AWS Systems Manager Parameter Store using the Secure String data type. Define an IAM role with an attached policy that allows decryption of the database credentials. Associate this role to all the instances and on-premises servers.
D. Use AWS CodeDeploy to deploy application packages to the instances. Store database credentials in the AppSpec file. Define an IAM policy for allowing access to only the database credentials. Attach the IAM policy to the role associated to the instance profile for CodeDeploymanaged instances and the role used for on-premises instances registration on CodeDeploy.

Answer: B

76. A company has a single Developer writing code for an automated deployment pipeline. The Developer is storing source code in an Amazon S3 bucket for each project. The company wants to add more Developers to the team but is concerned about code conflicts and lost work. The company also wants to build a test environment to deploy newer versions of code for testing and allow Developers to automatically deploy to both environments when code is changed in the repository. What is the MOST efficient way to meet these requirements?

A. Create an AWS CodeCommit repository for each project, use the master branch for production code, and create a testing branch for code deployed to testing. Use feature branches to develop new features and pull requests to merge code to testing and master branches.
B. Create another S3 bucket for each project for testing code, and use an AWS Lambda function to promote code changes between testing and production buckets. Enable versioning on all buckets to prevent code conflicts.
C. Create an AWS CodeCommit repository for each project, and use the master branch for production and test code with different deployment pipelines for each environment. Use feature branches to develop new features.
D. Enable versioning and branching on each S3 bucket, use the master branch for production code, and create a testing branch for code deployed to testing. Have Developers use each branch for developing in each environment.

Answer: A

77. After presenting a working proof of concept for a new application that uses AWS API Gateway, a Developer must set up a team development environment for the project. Due to a tight timeline, the Developer wants to minimize time spent on infrastructure setup, and would like to reuse the code repository created for the proof of concept. Currently, all source code is stored in AWS CodeCommit. Company policy mandates having alpha, beta, and production stages with separate Jenkins servers to build code and run tests for every stage. The Development Manager must have the ability to block code propagation between admins at any time. The Security team wants to make sure that users will not be able to modify the environment without permission. How can this be accomplished?

A. Create API Gateway alpha, beta, and production stages. Create a CodeCommit trigger to deploy code to the different stages using an AWS Lambda function.
B. Create API Gateway alpha, beta, and production stages. Create an AWS CodePipeline that pulls code from the CodeCommit repository. Create CodePipeline actions to deploy code to the API Gateway stages.
C. Create Jenkins servers for the alpha, beta, and production stages on Amazon EC2 instances. Create multiple CodeCommit triggers to deploy code to different stages using an AWS Lambda function.
D. Create an AWS CodePipeline pipeline that pulls code from the CodeCommit repository. Create alpha, beta, and production stages with Jenkins servers on CodePipeline.

Answer: D

78. An online company uses Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling extensively to provide an excellent customer experience while minimizing the number of running EC2 instances. The company’s self-hosted Puppet environment in the application layer manages the configuration of the instances. The IT manager wants the lowest licensing costs and wants to ensure that whenever the EC2 Auto Scaling group scales down, removed EC2 instances are deregistered from the Puppet master as soon as possible. How can the requirement be met?

A. At instance launch time, use EC2 user data to deploy the AWS CodeDeploy agent. Use CodeDeploy to install the Puppet agent. When the Auto Scaling group scales out, run a script to register the newly deployed instances to the Puppet master. When the Auto Scaling group scales in, use the EC2 Auto Scaling EC2_INSTANCE_TERMINATING lifecycle hook to trigger de-registration from the Puppet master.
B. Bake the AWS CodeDeploy agent into the base AMI. When the Auto Scaling group scales out, use CodeDeploy to install the Puppet agent, and execute a script to register the newly deployed instances to the Puppet master. When the Auto Scaling group scales in, use the CodeDeploy ApplicationStop lifecycle hook to run a script to de-register the instance from the Puppet master.
C. At instance launch time, use EC2 user data to deploy the AWS CodeDeploy agent. When the Auto Scaling group scales out, use CodeDeploy to install the Puppet agent, and run a script to register the newly deployed instances to the Puppet master. When the Auto Scaling group scales in, use the EC2 user data instance stop script to run a script to de-register the instance from the Puppet master.
D. Bake the AWS Systems Manager agent into the base AMI. When the Auto Scaling group scales out, use the AWS Systems Manager to install the Puppet agent, and run a script to register the newly deployed instances to the Puppet master. When the Auto Scaling group scales in, use the Systems Manager instance stop lifecycle hook to run a script to de-register the instance from the Puppet master.

Answer: D

79. A company discovers that some IAM users have been storing their AWS access keys in configuration files that have been pushed to a Git repository hosting service. Which solution will require the LEAST amount of management overhead while preventing the exposed AWS access keys from being used?

A. Build an application that will create a list of all AWS access keys in the account and search each key on Git repository hosting services. If a match is found, configure the application to disable the associated access key. Then deploy the application to an AWS Elastic Beanstalk worker environment and define a periodic task to invoke the application every hour.
B. Use Amazon Inspector to detect when a key has been exposed online. Have Amazon Inspector send a notification to an Amazon SNS topic when a key has been exposed. Create an AWS Lambda function subscribed to the SNS topic to disable the IAM user to whom the key belongs, and then delete the key so that it cannot be used.
C. Configure AWS Trusted Advisor and create an Amazon CloudWatch Events rule that uses Trusted Advisor as the event source. Configure the CloudWatch Events rule to invoke an AWS Lambda function as the target. If the Lambda function finds the exposed access keys, then have it disable the access key so that it cannot be used.
D. Create an AWS Config rule to detect when a key is exposed online. Haw AWS Config send change notifications to an SNS topic. Configure an AWS Lambda function that is subscribed to the SNS topic to check the notification sent by AWS Config, and then disable the access key so it cannot be used.

Answer: C

80. Company policies require that information about IP traffic going between instances in the production Amazon VPC is captured. The capturing mechanism must always be enabled and the Security team must be notified when any changes in configuration occur. What should be done to ensure that these requirements are met?

A. Using the UserData section of an AWS CloudFormation template, install tcpdump on every provisioned Amazon EC2 instance. The output of the tool is sent to Amazon EFS for aggregation and querying. In addition, scheduling an Amazon CloudWatch Events rule calls an AWS Lambda function to check whether tcpdump is up and running and sends an email to the security organization when there is an exception.
B. Create a flow log for the production VPC and assign an Amazon S3 bucket as a destination for delivery. Using Amazon S3 Event Notification, set up an AWS Lambda function that is triggered when a new log file gets delivered. This Lambda function updates an entry in Amazon DynamoDB, which is periodically checked by scheduling an Amazon CloudWatch Events rule to notify security when logs have not arrived.
C. Create a flow log for the production VPC. Create a new rule using AWS Config that is triggered by configuration changes of resources of type ‘EC2:VPC’. As part of configuring the rule, create an AWS Lambda function that looks up flow logs for a given VPC. If the VPC flow logs are not configured, return a ‘NON_COMPLIANT’ status and notify the security organization.
D. Configure a new trail using AWS CloudTrail service. Using the UserData section of an AWS CloudFormation template, install tcpdump on every provisioned Amazon EC2 instance. Connect Amazon Athena to the CloudTrail and write an AWS Lambda function that monitors for a flow log disable event. Once the CloudTrail entry has been spotted, alert the security organization

Answer: C

81. A DevOps Engineer needs to deploy a scalable three-tier Node.js application in AWS. The application must have zero downtime during deployments and be able to roll back to previous versions. Other applications will also connect to the same MySQL backend database.
– The CIO has provided the following guidance for logging:
– Centrally view all current web access server logs.
– Search and filter web and application logs in near-real time.
– Retain log data for three months.
How should these requirements be met?

A. Deploy the application using AWS Elastic Beanstalk. Configure the environment type for Elastic Load Balancing and Auto Scaling. Create an Amazon RDS MySQL instance inside the Elastic Beanstalk stack. Configure the Elastic Beanstalk log options to stream logs to Amazon CloudWatch Logs. Set retention to 90 days.
B. Deploy the application on Amazon EC2. Configure Elastic Load Balancing and Auto Scaling. Use an Amazon RDS MySQL instance for the database tier. Configure the application to store log files in Amazon S3. Use Amazon EMR to search and filter the data. Set an Amazon S3 lifecycle rule to expire objects after 90 days.
C. Deploy the application using AWS Elastic Beanstalk. Configure the environment type for Elastic Load Balancing and Auto Scaling. Create the Amazon RDS MySQL instance outside the Elastic Beanstalk stack. Configure the Elastic Beanstalk log options to stream logs to Amazon CloudWatch Logs. Set retention to 90 days.
D. Deploy the application on Amazon EC2. Configure Elastic Load Balancing and Auto Scaling. Use an Amazon RDS MySQL instance for the database tier. Configure the application to load streaming log data using Amazon Kinesis Data Firehouse into Amazon ES. Delete and create a new Amazon ES domain every 90 days.

Answer: B

82. An IT team has built an AWS CloudFormation template so others in the company can quickly and reliably deploy and terminate an application. The template creates an Amazon EC2 instance with a user data script to install the application and an Amazon S3 bucket that the application uses to serve static web-pages while it is running. All resources should be removed when the CloudFormation stack is deleted. However, the team observes that CloudFormation reports an error during stack deletion, and the S3 bucket created by the stack is not deleted. How can the team resolve the error in the MOST efficient manner to ensure that all resources are deleted without errors?

A. Add DeletionPolicy attribute to the S3 bucket resource, with the value Delete forcing the bucket to be removed when the stack is deleted.
B. Add a custom resource when an AWS Lambda function with the DependsOn attribute specifying the S3 bucket, and an IAM role. Writhe the Lambda function to delete all objects from the bucket when the RequestType is Delete.
C. Identify the resource that was not deleted. From the S3 console, empty the S3 bucket and then delete it.
D. Replace the EC2 and S3 bucket resources with a single AWS OpsWorks Stacks resource. Define a custom recipe for the stack to create and delete the EC2 instance and the S3 bucket.

Answer: B

83. A DevOps Engineer just joined a new company that is already running workloads on Amazon EC2 instances. AWS has been adopted incrementally with no central governance. The Engineer must now assess how well the existing deployments comply with the following requirements: EC2 instances are running only approved AMIs. Amazon EBS volumes are encrypted. EC2 instances have an Owner tag. Root login over SSH is disabled on EC2 instances. Which services should the Engineer use to perform this assessment with the LEAST amount of effort? (Select TWO.)

A. AWS Config
B. Amazon GuardDuty
C. AWS System Manager
D. AWS Directory Service
E. Amazon Inspector

Answer: A E

84. A healthcare company has a critical application running in AWS. Recently, the company experienced some down time. if it happens again, the company needs to be able to recover its application in another AWS Region. The application uses Elastic Load Balancing and Amazon EC2 instances. The company also maintains a custom AMI that contains its application. This AMI is changed frequently. The workload is required to run in the primary region, unless there is a regional service disruption in which case traffic should fail over to the new region. Additionally, the cost for the second region needs to be low. The RTO is 2 hours. Which solution allows the company to fail over to another region in the event of a failure, and also meet the above requirements?

A. Maintain a copy of the AMI from the main region in the backup region. Create an Auto Scaling group with one instance using a launch configuration that contains the copied AMI. Use an Amazon Route 53 record to direct traffic to the load balancer in the backup region in the event of failure, as required. Allow the Auto Scaling group to scale out as needed during a failure.
B. Automate the copying of the AMI in the main region to the backup region. Generate an AWS Lambda function that will create an EC2 instance from the AMI and place it behind a load balancer. Using the same Lambda function, point the Amazon Route 53 record to the load balancer in the backup region. Trigger the Lambda function in the event of a failure.
C. Place the AMI in a replicated Amazon S3 bucket. Generate an AWS Lambda function that can create a launch configuration and assign it to an already created Auto Scaling group. Have one instance in this Auto Scaling group ready to accept traffic. Trigger the Lambda function in the event of a failure. Use an Amazon Route 53 record and modify it with the same Lambda function to point to the load balancer in the backup region.
D. Automate the copying of the AMI to the backup region. Create an AWS Lambda function that can create a launch configuration and assign it to an already created Auto Scaling group. Set the Auto Scaling group maximum size to 0 and only increase it with the Lambda function during a failure. Trigger the Lambda function in the event of a failure. Use an Amazon Route 53 record and modify it with the same Lambda function to point to the load balancer in the backup region.

Answer: D

85. A legacy web application stores access logs in a proprietary text format. One of the security requirements is to search application access events and correlate them with access data from many different systems. These searches should be near-real time. Which solution offloads the processing load on the application server and provides a mechanism to search the data in near-real time?

A. Install the Amazon CloudWatch Logs agent on the application server and use CloudWatch Events rules to search logs for access events. Use Amazon CloudSearch as an interface to search for events.
B. Use the third-party file-input plugin Logstash to monitor the application log file, then use a custom dissect filter on the agent to parse the log entries into the JSON format. Output the events to Amazon ES to be searched. Use the Elasticsearch API for querying the data.
C. Upload the log files to Amazon S3 by using the S3 sync command. Use Amazon Athena to define the structure of the data as a table, with Athena SQL queries to search for access events.
D. Install the Amazon Kinesis Agent on the application server, configure it to monitor the log files, and send it to a Kinesis stream. Configure Kinesis to transform the data by using an AWS Lambda function, and forward events to Amazon ES for analysis. Use the Elasticsearch API for querying the data.

Answer: D

86. A company runs a database on a single Amazon EC2 instance in a development environment. The data is stored on separate Amazon EBS volumes that are attached to the EC2 instance. An Amazon Route 53 A record has been created and configured to point to the EC2 instance. The company would like to automate the recovery of the database instance when an instance or Availability Zone (AZ) fails. The company also wants to keep its costs low. The RTO is 4 hours and RPO is 12 hours. Which solution should a DevOps Engineer implement to meet these requirements?

A. Run the database in an Auto Scaling group with a minimum and maximum instance count of 1 in multiple AZs. Add a lifecycle hook to the Auto Scaling group and define an Amazon CloudWatch Events rule that is triggered when a lifecycle event occurs. Have the CloudWatch Events rule invoke an AWS Lambda function to detach or attach the Amazon EBS data volumes from the EC2 instance based on the event. Configure the EC2 instance UserData to mount the data volumes (retry on failure with a short delay), then start the database and update the Route 53 record.
B. Run the database on two separate EC2 instances in different AZs with one active and the other as a standby. Attach the data volumes to the active instance. Configure an Amazon CloudWatch Events rule to invoke an AWS Lambda function on EC2 instance termination. The Lambda function launches a replacement EC2 instance. If the terminated instance was the active node, then the function attaches the data volumes to the standby node. Start the database and update the Route 53 record.
C. Run the database in an Auto Scaling group with a minimum and maximum instance count of 1 in multiple AZs. Create an AWS Lambda function that is triggered by a scheduled Amazon CloudWatch Events rule every 4 hours to take a snapshot of the data volume and apply a tag. Have the instance UserData get the latest snapshot, create a new volume from it, and attach and mount the volume. Then start the database and update the Route 53 record.
D. Run the database on two separate EC2 instances in different AZs. Configure one of the instances as a master and the other as a standby. Set up replication between the master and standby instances. Point the Route 53 record to the master. Configure an Amazon CloudWatch Events rule to invoke an AWS Lambda function upon the EC2 instance termination. The Lambda function launches a replacement EC2 instance. If the terminated instance was the active node, the function promotes the standby to master and points the Route 53 record to it.

Answer: D

87. A consulting company was hired to assess security vulnerabilities within a client company’s application and propose a plan to remediate all identified issues. The architecture is identified as follows: Amazon S3 storage for content, an Auto Scaling group of Amazon EC2 instances behind an Elastic Load Balancer with attached Amazon EBS storage, and an Amazon RDS MySQL database. There are also several AWS Lambda functions that communicate directly with the RDS database using connection string statements in the code. The consultants identified the top security threat as follows: the application is not meeting its requirement to have encryption at rest. What solution will address this issue with the LEAST operational overhead and will provide monitoring for potential future violations?

A. Enable SSE encryption on the S3 buckets and RDS database. Enable OS-based encryption of data on EBS volumes. Configure Amazon Inspector agents on EC2 instances to report on insecure encryption ciphers. Set up AWS Config rules to periodically check for non-encrypted S3 objects.
B. Configure the application to encrypt each file prior to storing on Amazon S3. Enable OS-based encryption of data on EBS volumes. Encrypt data on write to RDS. Run cron jobs on each instance to check for encrypted data and notify via Amazon SNS. Use S3 Events to call an AWS Lambda function and verify if the file is encrypted.
C. Enable Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) on the load balancer, ensure that AWS Lambda is using SSL to communicate to the RDS database, and enable S3 encryption. Configure the application to force SSL for incoming connections and configure RDS to only grant access if the session is encrypted. Configure Amazon Inspector agents on EC2 instances to report on insecure encryption ciphers.
D. Enable SSE encryption on the S3 buckets, EBS volumes, and the RDS database. Store RDS credentials in EC2 Parameter Store. Enable a policy on the S3 bucket to deny unencrypted puts. Set up AWS Config rules to periodically check for non-encrypted S3 objects and EBS volumes, and to ensure that RDS storage is encrypted.

Answer: D

88. A new zero-day vulnerability was found in OpenSSL requiring the immediate patching of a production web fleet running on Amazon Linux. Currently, OS updates are performed manually on a monthly basis and deployed using updates to the production Auto Scaling Group’s launch configuration. Which method should a DevOps Engineer use to update packages in-place without downtime?

A. Use AWS CodePipline and AWS CodeBuild to generate new copies of these packages, and update the Auto Scaling group’s launch configuration.
B. Use AWS Inspector to run “yum upgrade” on all running production instances, and manually update the AMI for the next maintenance window.
C. Use Amazon EC2 Run Command to issue a package update command to all running production instances, and update the AMI for future deployments.
D. Define a new AWS OpsWorks layer to match the running production instances, and use a recipe to issue a package update command to all running production instances.

Answer: C

89. A company runs a production application workload in a single AWS account that uses Amazon Route 53, AWS Elastic Beanstalk, and Amazon RDS. In the event of a security incident, the Security team wants the application workload to fail over to a new AWS account. The Security team also wants to block all access to the original account immediately, with no access to any AWS resources in the original AWS account, during forensic analysis. What is the most cost-effective way to prepare to fail over to the second account prior to a security incident?

A. Migrate the Amazon Route 53 configuration to a dedicated AWS account. Mirror the Elastic Beanstalk configuration in a different account. Enable RDS Database Read Replicas in a different account.
B. Migrate the Amazon Route 53 configuration to a dedicated AWS account. Save/copy the Elastic Beanstalk configuration files in a different AWS account. Copy snapshots of the RDS Database to a different account.
C. Save/copy the Amazon Route 53 configurations for use in a different AWS account after an incident. Save/copy Elastic Beanstalk configuration files to a different account. Enable the RDS database read replica in a different account.
D. Save/copy the Amazon Route 53 configurations for use in a different AWS account after an incident. Mirror the configuration of Elastic Beanstalk in a different account. Copy snapshots of the RDS database to a different account.

Answer: B

90. Two teams are working together on different portions of an architecture and are using AWS CloudFormation to manage their resources. One team administers operating system-level updates and patches, while the other team manages application-level dependencies and updates. The Application team must take the most recent AMI when creating new instances and deploying the application. What is the MOST scalable method for linking these two teams and processes?

A. The Operating System team uses CloudFormation to create new versions of their AMIs and lists the Amazon Resource names (ARNs) of the AMIs in an encrypted Amazon S3 object as part of the stack output section. The Application team uses a cross-stack reference to load the encrypted S3 object and obtain the most recent AMI ARNs.
B. The Operating System team uses CloudFormation stack to create an AWS CodePipeline pipeline that builds new AMIs, then places the latest AMI ARNs in an encrypted Amazon S3 object as part of the pipeline output. The Application team uses a cross-stack reference within their own CloudFormation template to get that S3 object location and obtain the most recent AMI ARNs to use when deploying their application.
C. The Operating System team uses CloudFormation stack to create an AWS CodePipeline pipeline that builds new AMIs. The team then places the AMI ARNs as parameters in AWS Systems Manager Parameter Store as part of the pipeline output. The Application team specifies a parameter of type ssm in their CloudFormation stack to obtain the most recent AMI ARN from the Parameter Store.
D. The Operating System team maintains a nested stack that includes both the operating system and Application team templates. The Operating System team uses a stack update to deploy updates to the application stack whenever the Application team changes the application code.

Answer: B

91. The Deployment team has grown substantially in recent months and so has the number of projects that use separate code repositories. The current process involves configuring AWS CodePipeline manually, and there have been service limit alerts for the count of Amazon S3 buckets. Which pipeline option will reduce S3 bucket sprawl alerts?

A. Combine the multiple separate code repositories into a single one, and deploy using a global AWS CodePipeline that has logic for each project.
B. Create new pipelines by using the AWS API or AWS CLI, and configure them to use a single global S3 bucket with separate prefixes for each project.
C. Create a new pipeline in a different region for each project to bypass the service limits for S3 buckets in a single region.
D. Create a new pipeline and for S3 bucket for each project by using the AWS API or AWS CLI to bypass the service limits for S3 buckets in a single account.

Answer: B

92. A startup company is developing a web application on AWS. It plans to use Amazon RDS for persistence and deploy the application to Amazon EC2 with an Auto Scaling group. The company would also like to separate the environments for development, testing, and production. What is the MOST secure and flexible approach to manage the application configuration?

A. Create a property file to include the configuration and the encrypted passwords. Check in the property file to the source repository, package the property file with the application, and deploy the application. Create an environment tag for the EC2 instances and tag the instances respectively. The application will extract the necessary property values based on the environment tag.
B. Create a property file for each environment to include the environment-specific configuration and an encrypted password. Check in the property files to the source repository. During deployment, use only the environment-specific property file with the application. The application will read the needed property values from the deployed property file.
C. Create a property file for each environment to include the environment-specific configuration. Create a private Amazon S3 bucket and save the property files in the bucket. Save the passwords in the bucket with AWS KMS encryption. During deployment, the application will read the needed property values from the environment-specific property file in the S3 bucket.
D. Create a property file for each environment to include the environment-specific configuration. Create a private Amazon S3 bucket and save the property files in the bucket. Save the encrypted passwords in the AWS Systems Manager Parameter Store. Create an environment tag for the EC2 instances and tag the instances respectively. The application will read the needed property values from the environment-specific property file in the S3 bucket and the parameter store.

Answer: D

93. A DevOps Engineer is using AWS CodeDeploy across a fleet of Amazon EC2 instances in an EC2 Auto Scaling group. The associated CodeDeploy deployment group, which is integrated with EC2 Auto Scaling, is configured to perform in-place deployments with CodeDeployDefault.OneAtATime. During an ongoing new deployment, the Engineer discovers that, although the overall deployment finished successfully, two out of five instances have the previous application revision deployed. The other three instances have the newest application revision. What is likely causing this issue?

A. The two affected instances failed to fetch the new deployment.
B. A failed AfterInstall lifecycle event hook caused the CodeDeploy agent to roll back to the previous version on the affected instances.
C. The CodeDeploy agent was not installed in two affected instances.
D. EC2 Auto Scaling launched two new instances while the new deployment had not yet finished, causing the previous version to be deployed on the affected instances.

Answer: D

94. A company runs a three-tier web application in its production environment, which is built on a single AWS CloudFormation template made up of Amazon EC2 instances behind an ELB Application Load Balancer. The instances run in an EC2 Auto Scaling group across multiple Availability Zones. Data is stored in an Amazon RDS Multi-AZ DB instance with read replicas. Amazon Route 53 manages the application’s public DNS record. A DevOps Engineer must create a workflow to mitigate a failed software deployment by rolling back changes in the production environment when a software cutover occurs for new application software. What steps should the Engineer perform to meet these requirements with the LEAST amount of downtime?

A. Use CloudFormation to deploy an additional staging environment and configure the Route 53 DNS with weighted records. During cutover, change the Route 53 A record weights to achieve an even traffic distribution between the two environments. Validate the traffic in the new environment and immediately terminate the old environment if tests are successful.
B. Use a single AWS Elastic Beanstalk environment to deploy the staging and production environments. Update the environment by uploading the ZIP file with the new application code. Swap the Elastic Beanstalk environment CNAME. Validate the traffic in the new environment and immediately terminate the old environment if tests are successful.
C. Use a single AWS Elastic Beanstalk environment and an AWS OpsWorks environment to deploy the staging and production environments. Update the environment by uploading the ZIP file with the new application code into the Elastic Beanstalk environment deployed with the OpsWorks stack. Validate the traffic in the new environment and immediately terminate the old environment if tests are successful.
D. Use AWS CloudFormation to deploy an additional staging environment, and configure the Route 53 DNS with weighted records. During cutover, increase the weight distribution to have more traffic directed to the new staging environment as workloads are successfully validated. Keep the old production environment in place until the new staging environment handles all traffic.

Answer: D

95. A company wants to adopt a methodology for handling security threats from leaked and compromised IAM access keys. The DevOps Engineer has been asked to automate the process of acting upon compromised access keys, which includes identifying users, revoking their permissions, and sending a notification to the Security team. Which of the following would achieve this goal?

A. Use the AWS Trusted Advisor generated security report for access keys. Use Amazon EMR to run analytics on the report. Identify compromised IAM access keys and delete them. Use Amazon CloudWatch with an EMR Cluster State Change event to notify the Security team.
B. Use AWS Trusted Advisor to identify compromised access keys. Create an Amazon CloudWatch Events rule with Trusted Advisor as the event source, and AWS Lambda and Amazon SNS as targets. Use AWS Lambda to delete compromised IAM access keys and Amazon SNS to notify the Security team.
C. Use the AWS Trusted Advisor generated security report for access keys. Use AWS Lambda to scan through the report. Use scan result inside AWS Lambda and delete compromised IAM access keys. Use Amazon SNS to notify the Security team.
D. Use AWS Lambda with a third-party library to scan for compromised access keys. Use scan result inside AWS Lambda and delete compromised IAM access keys. Create Amazon CloudWatch custom metrics for compromised keys. Create a CloudWatch alarm on the metrics to notify the Security team.

Answer: B

96. A company wants to use Amazon ECS to provide a Docker container runtime environment. For compliance reasons, all Amazon EBS volumes used in the ECS cluster must be encrypted. Rolling updates will be made to the cluster instances and the company wants the instances drained of all tasks before being terminated. How can these requirements be met? (Select TWO.)

A. Modify the default ECS AMI user data to create a script that executes docker rm –f {id} for all running container instances. Copy the script to the /etc/init.d/rc.d directory and execute chkconfig enabling the script to run during operating system shutdown.
B. Use AWS CodePipeline to build a pipeline that discovers the latest Amazon-provided ECS AMI, then copies the image to an encrypted AMI outputting the encrypted AMI ID. Use the encrypted AMI ID when deploying the cluster.
C. Copy the default AWS CloudFormation template that ECS uses to deploy cluster instances. Modify the template resource EBS configuration setting to set ‘Encrypted: True’ and include the AWS KMS alias: ‘aws/ebs’ to encrypt the AMI.
D. Create an Auto Scaling lifecycle hook backed by an AWS Lambda function that uses the AWS SDK to mark a terminating instance as DRAINING. Prevent the lifecycle hook from completing until the running tasks on the instance are zero.
E. Create an IAM role that allows the action ECS::EncryptedImage. Configure the AWS CLI and a profile to use this role. Start the cluster using the AWS CLI providing the –use-encrypted-image and –kms-key arguments to the create-cluster ECS command.

Answer: C D

97. A government agency has multiple AWS accounts, many of which store sensitive citizen information. A Security team wants to detect anomalous account and network activities (such as SSH brute force attacks) in any account and centralize that information in a dedicated security account. Event information should be stored in an Amazon S3 bucket in the security account, which is monitored by the department’s Security Information and Even Manager (SIEM) system. How can this be accomplished?

A. Enable Amazon Macie in every account. Configure the security account as the Macie Administrator for every member account using invitation/acceptance. Create an Amazon CloudWatch Events rule in the security account to send all findings to Amazon Kinesis Data Firehouse, which should push the findings to the S3 bucket.
B. Enable Amazon Macie in the security account only. Configure the security account as the Macie Administrator for every member account using invitation/acceptance. Create an Amazon CloudWatch Events rule in the security account to send all findings to Amazon Kinesis Data Streams. Write and application using KCL to read data from the Kinesis Data Streams and write to the S3 bucket.
C. Enable Amazon GuardDuty in every account. Configure the security account as the GuardDuty Administrator for every member account using invitation/acceptance. Create an Amazon CloudWatch rule in the security account to send all findings to Amazon Kinesis Data Firehouse, which will push the findings to the S3 bucket.
D. Enable Amazon GuardDuty in the security account only. Configure the security account as the GuardDuty Administrator for every member account using invitation/acceptance. Create an Amazon CloudWatch rule in the security account to send all findings to Amazon Kinesis Data Streams. Write and application using KCL to read data from Kinesis Data Streams and write to the S3 bucket.

Answer: D

98. An AWS CodePipeline pipeline has implemented a code release process. The pipeline is integrated with AWS CodeDeploy to deploy versions of an application to multiple Amazon EC2 instances for each CodePipeline stage. During a recent deployment, the pipeline failed due to a CodeDeploy issue. The DevOps team wants to improve monitoring and notifications during deployment to decrease resolution times. What should the DevOps Engineer do to create notifications when issues are discovered?

A. Implement AWS CloudWatch Logs for CodePipeline and CodeDeploy, create an AWS Config rule to evaluate code deployment issues, and create an Amazon SNS topic to notify stakeholders of deployment issues.
B. Implement AWS CloudWatch Events for CodePipeline and CodeDeploy, create an AWS Lambda function to evaluate code deployment issues, and create an Amazon SNS topic to notify stakeholders of deployment issues.
C. Implement AWS CloudTrail to record CodePipeline and CodeDeploy API call information, create an AWS Lambda function to evaluate code deployment issues, and create an Amazon SNS topic to notify stakeholders of deployment issues.
D. Implement AWS CloudWatch Events for CodePipeline and CodeDeploy, create an Amazon Inspector assessment target to evaluate code deployment issues, and create an Amazon SNS topic to notify stakeholders of deployment issues.

Answer: B

99. A company runs an application on Amazon EC2 instances behind an Application Load Balancer. The instances run in an Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling group across multiple Availability Zones in useast1. The application stores data in an Amazon RDS MySQL Multi-AZ DB instance. A DevOps Engineer wants to modify the current solution and create a hot standby of the environment in another region to minimize downtime if a problem occurs in us-east-1. Which combination of steps should the DevOps Engineer take to meet these requirements? (Select THREE.)

A. Add a health check to the Amazon Route 53 alias record to evaluate the health of the primary region. Use AWS Lambda, configured with an Amazon CloudWatch Events trigger, to elect the Amazon RDS master in the disaster recovery region.
B. Create a new Application Load Balancer and Auto Scaling group in the disaster recovery region.
C. Extend the current Auto Scaling group to the subnets in the disaster recovery region.
D. Enable multi-region failover for the RDS configuration for the database instance.
E. Deploy a read replica of the RDS instance in the disaster recovery region. F. Create an AWS Lambda function to evaluate the health of the primary region. If it fails, modify the Amazon Route 53 record to point at the disaster recovery region and elect the RDS master

Answer: A B E

100. A DevOps Engineer needs to design and implement a backup mechanism for Amazon EFS. The Engineer is given the following requirements:
– The backup should run on schedule.
– The backup should be stopped if the backup window expires.
– The backup should be stopped if the backup completes before the backup window.
– The backup logs should be retained for further analysis.
– The design should support highly available and fault-tolerant paradigms.
– Administrators should be notified with backup metadata.
Which design will meet these requirements?

A. Use AWS Lambda with an Amazon CloudWatch Events rule for scheduling the start/stop of backup activity. Run backup scripts on Amazon EC2 in an Auto Scaling group. Use Auto Scaling lifecycle hooks and the SSM Run Command on EC2 for uploading backup logs to Amazon S3. Use Amazon SNS to notify administrators with backup activity metadata.
B. Use Amazon SWF with an Amazon CloudWatch Events rule for scheduling the start/stop of backup activity. Run backup scripts on Amazon EC2 in an Auto Scaling group. Use Auto Scaling lifecycle hooks and the SSM Run Command on EC2 for uploading backup logs to Amazon Redshift. Use CloudWatch Alarms to notify administrators with backup activity metadata.
C. Use AWS Data Pipeline with an Amazon CloudWatch Events rule for scheduling the start/stop of backup activity. Run backup scripts on Amazon EC2 in a single Availability Zone. Use Auto Scaling lifecycle hooks and the SSM Run Command on EC2 for uploading the backup logs to Amazon RDS. Use Amazon SNS to notify administrators with backup activity metadata.
D. Use AWS CodePipeline with an Amazon CloudWatch Events rule for scheduling the start/stop of backup activity. Run backup scripts on Amazon EC2 in a single Availability Zone. Use Auto Scaling lifecycle hooks and the SSM Run Command on Amazon EC2 for uploading backup logs to Amazon S3. Use Amazon SES to notify admins with backup activity metadata.

Answer: A

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